Violent Crime Essays (Examples)

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Crime Reporting What Do You Think Crime

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43855853

Crime eporting

What Do You Think?

Crime eporting: UC and NCVS

The Uniform Crime eport is a compilation of offensives collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from all police stations in the United States. Data collected is divided into two groups, Part I and Part II. Part I data includes violent and property crimes such as aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Part II offenses include simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses ("Uniform Crime eports.," 2012).

The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by telephone and collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police against persons age twelve and older from a nationally…… [Read More]

References

"Crime rates are down." (2012, June 11). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/june/crimes_061112/crimes_061112

Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminolology today: An integrative introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

Truman, J.L. & Planty, M. (2012, October). Criminal victimization, 2011. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from  http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv11.pdf 

"Uniform crime reports." (2012, October). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2011/crime-in-the-u.s.-2011/index-page
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Crime Detection and Prevention it Is an

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49799329

Crime Detection and Prevention

It is an unfortunate fact of modern society that crime and criminal activity are part of our world today. This is particularly the case in situations that make an easy target for criminals. ape and robbery, for example, tend to be encouraged in environments that appear to be easy targets. All-night convenience stores, for example, may appear to be easy targets because they have low security features and often have only one employee per shift. The specific crime under discussion in this case is therefore the night-time robbery of all-night convenience stores.

When considering the factors in the Problem Analysis Chart offered by Clarke and Eck (p. 29), the environment provides a significant incentive for criminal activity. A convenience store at a remote location, for example, might appear to be an "easy" target for robbery. The problem analysis triangle, or crime trianble, may therefore offer valuable…… [Read More]

References

Center for Problem Oriented Policing. (n.d.). Twenty Five Techniques of Situational Prevention. Retrieved from:  http://www.popcenter.org/library/25%20techniques%20grid.pdf 

Clarke, R.V. And Eck, J.E. (n.d.) Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps. Center for Problem Oriented Policing. Retrieved from:  http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs/60steps.pdf 

Crime in America.net (2011, Feb 22). Top 10 Factors Contributing to Violent Crime. Retrieved from:  http://www.crimeinamerica.net/2011/02/22/top-10-factors-contributing-to-violent-crime/
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Crime as Schmalleger Explains the American Juvenile-Justice

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34971095

Crime

As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.

Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
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Crime Rates and Abandoned Buildings Is There

Words: 1399 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97455983

Crime ates and Abandoned Buildings

Is there a relationship between crime rates and abandoned buildings?

Theoretical background

A vast portion of research on crime and its relation with location is centered at either validating or refuting 'broken window theory'. The theory states that disorders such as graffiti, litter, and broken windows may encourage or cause increase in other disorders and petty crime. The theory by virtue of its title, research objectives, and conclusions does not merit our research question regarding relationship of abandoned building and crime rate. Most policing and preventive efforts for curtailing crime in the U.S. And elsewhere have also been based on broken window theory. Disorder does not imply that any serious crime will take place at a place and serious crimes are neither taking place at littered or disordered places. Policing activities are focused on securing the abandoned buildings and how far is that helped by…… [Read More]

References

Braga, A.A., & Bond, B.J. (2008). Policing crime and disorder hot spots: A randomized controlled trial. Criminology, 46(3), 577-607.

Harcourt, B.E., & Ludwig, J. (2006). Broken windows: New evidence from New York City and a five-city social experiment. The University of Chicago Law Review, 271-320.

Immergluck, D., & Smith, G. (2006). The impact of single-family mortgage foreclosures on neighborhood crime. Housing Studies, 21(6), 851-866.
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Crime and Gender First Document

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8485181

This gap suggests that men commit the majority of crimes. While the gap exists for all crimes, it is the largest for violent crime, such as homicide, rape, and robberies, and the smallest for property crime. Unlike self-report data, official statistics and victimization reports generally describe the gender-gap as most apparent, as these types of crime reporting suggest large gaps in the number of crimes committed by men and women. Official statistics and victimization reports probably show the largest gender gaps both because they deal more with violent crimes, whose perpetrators tend to be men and because self-report data allows researchers to choose samples that have equal amounts of men and women to study similarities and differences across gender. In other words, self-report data generally has a lower sex-gap because researchers can have a great deal influence in manipulating the data set.

Many crimes are not reported to the police…… [Read More]

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Crime Theories Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior

Words: 1548 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27773820

Crime Theories

Psychological theories of criminal behavior focus on the individual, rather than on contextual factors (as sociological theories of crime do) or on biological factors (such as genetics). Personality, traits, and cognitions are all covered under the rubric of psychological theories of crime. One of the prevailing and most widely accepted psychological theory of crime is rational choice theory. ational choice theory " is perhaps the most common reason why criminals do the things they do," accounting for a wide variety of criminal behaviors (Dechant, 2009). The theory was first suggested and developed by William Glasser, and has since become a default theory of explaining everything from petty theft to white-collar crime.

ational choice theory is relatively straightforward. The individual is believed to be acting rationally, making decisions based on personal need, convenience, and expediency. The theory permits for individual differences, as each person may be motivated by different…… [Read More]

References

Dechant, A.B. (2009). The psychology of criminal behavior: Theories from past to present. Coastline Journal. Retrieved online: http://coastlinejournal.org/2009/04/13/the-psychology-of-criminal-behaviour-theories-from-past-to-present/

Gul, S.K. (2009). An evaluation of the rational choice theory in criminology. Sociology and Applied Science 4(8): 36-44.

Li, H., Zhang, J. & Sarathy, R. (2010). Understanding compliance with internet use policy from the perspective of rational choice theory. Decision Support Systems 48(4): 635-645.

Scott, J. (2000). Rational choice theory From Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of The Present, edited by G. Browning, A. Halcli, and F. Webster. Sage Publications.
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Crime & the Treatment of

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10798349



Once inmates were encouraged to complete an education while in prison and gain skills to get a paying job so they could be self-supporting once they got out, but that is no longer so. The public attitude was, "Why should criminals get a free education? Law abiding citizens have to pay for college." The overcrowded conditions, caused by long mandated sentences for non-violent drug offenses put an end to social programs in the prisons aimed at preparing prisoners to live as law-abiding citizens when they got out.

Privatization of prisons, which makes them cheaper to run, has had negative effects. Some researchers contend that by putting private companies in charge of prisons, we have created a market economy for crime with a market demand for prisoners. More people in prison provide more business for these companies. These companies have strong lobbies that pressure for harsher and longer sentences. For example,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beaudoin, Jack. "Does the U.S.Abuse Human Rights," Scholastic Update. 8 Dec. 1997.

Bohm, Robert. "Crime, Criminals, and Crime Control Policy Myths," Justice Quarterly,

Chavez, Linda. "One of the Keys to Reducing Crime is Ridding our Prisons of the Crimes Committed There," Enterprise/Salt Lake City, May 15, Vol 29, Iss. 46,

Green, Bonnie L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Daroowalla, Anahita; and Juned Siddique. "Trauma
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Crime Theories Comparison Social Organization

Words: 1076 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7198572

Unlike the previous theories, social process theories explain criminal behavior on more microsociological terms. The emphasis of social process theories are not on the institutions, but on the relationships formed between individual family members, peer groups, teachers, church leaders and other agents of socialization.

The key concept of all social process theories is based on learning. Sociologists have believed that individuals learn social values and norms from agents of socialization. Thus, if those agents engage in behavior that is deviant or criminal, then there is a greater chance for an individual to engage in similar behavior.

Edwin Sutherland, the father of American criminology, is one of the greatest exemplars of social process theory. Though his theory of differential association was devised largely to explain white collar crime, many of the pronouncements are also applicable to violent crime. In response to psychologists who tried to explain criminal behavior in terms of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaw, C. & H. McKay. (1942). Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas. Chicago: Univ. Press.

Sutherland, Edwin H. 1983. White Collar Crime: The Uncut Version. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Crime Rate Analysis of Beaverton

Words: 483 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84479551

Just from looking at the way these crime statistics compare to those of other similar-sized cities, it would be reasonable to assume that eaverton is slightly more affluent than average. The rate and type of crime is skewed more towards the profit-driven types of crime and less to those that are generally associated with "fits of passion," gang behavior, and drug use (especially murder and robbery).

The fact that eaverton keeps it crime rates so low with only one hundred and twenty officers (and twenty-nine civilians) is also a testament to the area's probable affluence. A comparison of this number to the number of officers in other cities makes it clear why crime is kept so low -- they have one of the highest number of officers per capita of any city in Oregon. For this reason, it seems reasonable to surmise that an adequate number of law enforcement officers…… [Read More]

Beaverton compares well in other areas of violent and irreversible crime, too. The eighteen forcible rapes and thirty robberies that occurred in 2006 show that, though not perfect, Beaverton's a relatively safe city in which to live, especially when compared wit other cities of comparable size. The town of Bend for instance, with a population almost twenty thousand people smaller than that of Beaverton, has higher rates in all of the violent crimes discussed so far: murder, rape, and robbery. Beaverton seems poised and able to effectively combat such violent crimes in a way that leaves other cities far behind.

Their record is less stellar in the area of non-violent crimes, however. It appears to be about average when it comes to instances of property crime and arson, and has higher rates of burglary and larceny and theft, too. Just from looking at the way these crime statistics compare to those of other similar-sized cities, it would be reasonable to assume that Beaverton is slightly more affluent than average. The rate and type of crime is skewed more towards the profit-driven types of crime and less to those that are generally associated with "fits of passion," gang behavior, and drug use (especially murder and robbery).

The fact that Beaverton keeps it crime rates so low with only one hundred and twenty officers (and twenty-nine civilians) is also a testament to the area's probable affluence. A comparison of this number to the number of officers in other cities makes it clear why crime is kept so low -- they have one of the highest number of officers per capita of any city in Oregon. For this reason, it seems reasonable to surmise that an adequate number of law enforcement officers exists in Beaverton. Though more could be added to the patrol in an attempt to curb the burglaries and thefts that seem so prevalent in the area, the added effectiveness would probably be very little, and would almost certainly not be worth the added cost to the city. Crime is an unfortunate by-product of a society; it will always exist to one degree or another. Extra law enforcement officers are not necessary and might actually be a burden in the community of Beaverton, Oregon.
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Crime and Gender Criminology What

Words: 340 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22260605

What is "hegemonic masculinity"? Explain one way in which "hegemonic masculinity" is related to violent crime.

Connell (1987) suggested that cultural definitions of what constitutes "ideal" masculinity strongly influences the way that males interact with their social environments. Specifically, if a culture values professional success, social power, physical strength, and emotional independence in males, most males within that culture will strive toward those ideals. According to Connell (1987) this is equally true irrespective of how successfully individual males achieve those ideals because they still motivate males to strive to meet elements of those particular ideals. Since a large part of hegemonic masculinity in many cultures relates to maintaining one's "honor" or respect, males are generally much more inclined to respond to insults or to perceived issues of lack of respect with violence. Similarly, since cultural concepts of masculinity often relate to providing for one's family financially, males often experience a…… [Read More]

In the context of violent crime, doing gender has been suggested as part of the reason that crime, and violent crime in particular, are perpetrated much more often by males than by females. Males are more likely to react to personal struggles by ignoring them until erupting in violence; females are more likely to share their feelings with others and seek assistance instead of lashing out against others (or themselves). Males are also more likely to form delinquent or deviant associations that increase their respective propensity to violence and criminal conduct

2. What is "hegemonic masculinity"? Explain one way in which "hegemonic masculinity" is related to violent crime.

Connell (1987) suggested that cultural definitions of what constitutes "ideal" masculinity strongly influences the way that males interact with their social environments. Specifically, if a culture values professional success, social power, physical strength, and emotional independence in males, most males within that culture will strive toward those ideals. According to Connell (1987) this is equally true irrespective of how successfully individual males achieve those ideals because they still motivate males to strive to meet elements of those particular ideals. Since a large part of hegemonic masculinity in many cultures relates to maintaining one's "honor" or respect, males are generally much more inclined to respond to insults or to perceived issues of lack of respect with violence. Similarly, since cultural concepts of masculinity often relate to providing for one's family financially, males often experience a more intense urge to engage in criminal conduct for profit where their efforts to do so lawfully are unsuccessful.
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Crime in the Beginning the Main Focus

Words: 1861 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68215282

Crime

In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.

When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…… [Read More]

References

Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.

GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from:  http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp 

Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.
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Crime Versus Sin

Words: 2183 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31020683

Crime vs. Sin

A criminal justice agency, specifically the police department relies very heavily on its organization to fulfill its duties to society, which is to protect from crime and to serve justice (Kenney & McNamara, 1999). The justice which is to be served depends on the severity of the offense or crime. Crime is quite a complex subject which can be divided into two different categories: natural crime and legal crime. Only legal crime can be processed/punished by the Criminal Justice System. These are acts which are the direct violation of the law which varies from state to state and country to country (Finnis, 2007). This is known as Mala prohibita, or something which is known as a legal crime which is punishable by the law (Vila & Morris, 1999). Natural crime is something which is not written; it is determined by the society you live in and most…… [Read More]

References

Bronsteen, J., Buccafusco, C., & Masur, J.. (2010). Retribution and the Experience of Punishment. California Law Review, 98(5), 1463. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from Criminal Justice Periodicals.

Conlon, B., Harris, S., Nagel, J., Hillman, M., & Hanson, R. (2008). Education: Don't Leave Prison Without It. Corrections Today, 70 (1); 48-49, 51-52.

Davis, M.S. (2006). Crimes Mala in Se: An Equity-Based Definition: Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17 (3) 270-289. Sage Publications, 2006.

Finnis, J. (2007). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Natural Law Theories. Retrieved February 4, 2010, form web site:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/natural-law-theories/
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Crime Trends in Indiana 1981-2011 With an

Words: 1687 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51825625

Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011

With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than the national average. However, data collected between 1995 and 2005 shows a disturbing trend: the crime rate for many categories is declining in the rest of the country faster than in the state of Indiana. This data is shown in Figure 1, below.

Indiana Crime Index ate per 100,000 esidents Compared to National. From Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.

Currently, Indiana's cities are suffering from the loss of jobs in the state and the region, especially the northern cities like Gary and Hammond. Trends in urban crime are different from trends in rural crime, and it is also helpful for business owners and community leaders to understand the answer to the question "who commits crimes?" Community members and prospective Indiana homebuyers…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. & White, H. (1992). "An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory." Criminology 30(4): 475-99.

Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Labor Force Overview. Retrieved from  http://www.stats.indiana.edu  August 15, 2011.

Checkpoint (2010). The Global Retail Theft Barometer, 2010 Edition. White paper retrieved from  http://globalretailtheftbarometer.com  August 15, 2011.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010). Uniform Crime Report. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov August 19, 2011.
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Crime in Urban Cities Is at Least

Words: 1372 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87267949

Crime in urban cities is at least 1.5 times higher than suburban or rural areas. Many factors account for this difference including higher poverty, more densely populated centers, presence of poor minorities, low education, limited resources etc. The paper studies crime in urban cities from the perspective of causes and impact so explain why higher urbanization translates into higher crime rate.

Crime in urban cities

Crime in urban cities of the United States continues to be a major problem for the society. The effect of violent crime against persons and property on general welfare is unmistakable since it takes a serious toll on mental, physical and emotional health of people while it places a huge burden on society's resources and finances. It is important to mention that while crime has a profound impact on welfare of people; it also costs the country almost 0.7% of GDP in variety of ways…… [Read More]

References

GLEASER, EDWARD L. And SACERDOTE, BRUCE. (1996) Why is there more crime in cities? NBER Working Paper # 5430, January.

MASIH, ABUL M.M. And MAS-H RUMI. (1996) Temporal causality and the dynamics of different categories of crime and their socioeconomic determinants: evidence from Australia, Applied Economics, 28, 1093-1104.

Winters, Clyde A. "Learning Disabilities, Crime Delinquency, and Special Education Placement." Adolescence 32.126 (1997): 451.
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Crime and Gender as Steffensmeier

Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12940363

"Greater freedom has increased female participation in the public sphere," which would expose greater numbers of women to criminal behaviors and the opportunities to commit crimes (Steffensmeier & Allan1996, p. 469). Combined with social control theory, opportunity theory offers a plausible explanation for the gender gap in criminal behavior. Social control theory and opportunity theory share in common the basic assumption that deviance is a natural human instinct; that left to their own devices both men and women are predisposed to crime. Criminal behavior is always an option, according to social control theory and opportunity theory. The two sociological theories suggest that deterrents to committing crime, such as a lack of opportunity or strong social bonds, determine patterns of criminal behavior. Moreover, social control theory and opportunity theory emphasize sociological variables at the expense of psychological or personality-based ones.

The opportunity theories such as theories of routine activities present deviance…… [Read More]

References

Chapple, C.L., McQuillan, J.A., & Berdahl, T.A. (2004). Gender, social bonds, and delinquency: a comparison of boys' and girls' models. Social Science Research 34(2005): 357-383.

Federal Bureau of Investigation (2005). Crime in the United States: Ten-Year Arrest Trends. Table 33. Retrieved Aug 1, 2008 at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/05cius/data/table_33.html

Smith, D.A. & Paternoster, R. (1987). The gender gap in theories of deviance: Issues and evidence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 24(2): 140-172.

Steffensmeier, D. & Allan, E. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology. 22: 459-487.
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Violent Crowds the Phenomenon of

Words: 2653 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57637393

y identifying with the crowd, the individual is freed from responsibility for his or her actions, and thus is more likely to engage in violent behavior (or at a minimum, feels more comfortable engaging in said behavior). However, this does not fully account for violent crowds, because even if individuals gain anonymity through the crowd and thus are free to engage in violent behavior, one must explain just how this violent behavior is instigated and transmitted through the crowd, because although there is a positive connection between anonymity and violent or unethical behavior, one cannot go so far as to say that anonymity causes this behavior. Instead, one may look to a topic in bio-mechanics that, while usually reserved for discussions concerning birds or machines, actually goes a long way in explaining how violent crowds can form, or how previously nonviolent crowds can transition rapidly.

"Flocking" is a term first…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beck, E.M. And Timothy Clark. "Strangers, Community Miscreants, or Locals: Who were the Black Victims of Mob Violence?" Historical Methods 35, no. 2 (2002): 77-83.

Felson, Richard B. "Mass Media Effects on Violent Behavior." Annual Review of Sociology 22,

(1996): 103-128.

Hodge, Joel. "Why do Humans Commit Violence?" Compass 45, no. 3 (2011): 3-12.
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Violent Juvenile Offenders the Innocent

Words: 2799 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69323110

Though these factors can be an influence on the juvenile's choice to commit a crime, the ultimate cause of the crime was the juvenile's own cost-benefit analysis, according to this model.

A practical exploration of this model can be done using Jacob Ind, one of the five Colorado teenagers sentenced to life in prison without parole in Frontline's documentary, "Kids Who Get Life" (Bikel 2007). Ind was convicted of killing his mother and stepfather after years of sexual abuse. Ind defended himself saying that he did not understand the permanency of murder and just wanted the abuse to end (Bikel 2007). While other models may suggest that the cause of Ind's violent offense was his abuse and his misunderstanding of the consequences of murder, ational Choice Theory would contend that the abuse and misunderstandings influenced his behavior, although they did not cause it. What caused his behavior, the theory would…… [Read More]

References

Boehnke, Klaus and Dagmar Bergs-Winkels. (2002). Juvenile Delinquency Under Conditions of Rapid Social Change. Sociological Forum. 17 (1), 57-79.

Bikel, Ofra. (2007). When Kids Get Life. [Frontline]. Boston: Washington

Educational Foundation.

Hemer, Karen. (1997). Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent
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Crime-Native Americans Crime Issues for

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19623737

By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).

In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).

Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at  http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp 

Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.

Retrieved October 20, 2005 at  http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp 

Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209
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Violent Computer Game Violence and

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13272289

Quite to the point, television, film, pop music and video games share in common a proclivity to promote that which yields prosperity. Thus, there is little regard from the computer gaming industry for indications that "a meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults." (Anderson & Bushman, 353)

In spite of this, revenue for video game produces revolves on role-playing titles such as orld of arcraft, which promotes fantasy world combat, simulation games such as Grand Theft Auto, which glorifies violence and antisocial behavior, Halo, the simulated first-person shooter game, and Madden Football, which portrays in detail the often brutal sport of football.

Connecting absorption of such media with the commitment of violent crimes remains a challenge however. Famously, the two minors responsible for the massacre at the Columbine High School in 1999 were noted for playing such…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.

Harding, a. (2009). Violent Video Games Linked to Child Aggression. CNNHealth. Online at  http://www.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/family/11/03/healthmag.violent.video.kids/index.html
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Crime Sentencing First Time Offender

Words: 1715 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76486657

In other words, there is a preoccupation with repeat offenders and the first time offenders seem to get less severe penalties. As crime levels continue to rise although the media tends to report the opposite, citizens seem more dedicated to getting even first time offenders off of the streets.

eferences

Carlsmith, Kevin J., Darley, John M., & obinson, Paul H. (2002). Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 2, 284-299.

Curry, Theodore ., Lee, Gang, & odriquez, S. Fernando (2004). Does Victim Gender Increase Sentencing Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 50 No. 3, 319-343.

Saks, Michael J. (1989). Legal Policy Analysis and Evaluation. American Psychological Association, Vol. 44 No. 8, 1110-1117.

Sanders, Trevor, & oberts, Julian V. (2000). Public Attitudes Toward Conditional Sentencing: esults of a National Survey.…… [Read More]

References

Carlsmith, Kevin J., Darley, John M., & Robinson, Paul H. (2002). Why Do We Punish? Deterrence and Just Deserts as Motives for Punishment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 83 No. 2, 284-299.

Curry, Theodore R., Lee, Gang, & Rodriquez, S. Fernando (2004). Does Victim Gender Increase Sentencing Severity? Further Explorations of Gender Dynamics and Sentencing Outcomes. Crime & Delinquency, Vol. 50 No. 3, 319-343.

Saks, Michael J. (1989). Legal Policy Analysis and Evaluation. American Psychological Association, Vol. 44 No. 8, 1110-1117.

Sanders, Trevor, & Roberts, Julian V. (2000). Public Attitudes Toward Conditional Sentencing: Results of a National Survey. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, Vol. 32 No. 4, 199-207.
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Crime Kirkpatrick 2005 in the

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3476382

Every culture may identify some behavior as deviant, but a given behavior will not be defined as deviant in all cultures:

Deviance" refers to conduct which the people of a group consider so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it. Deviance is not a property inherent in any particular kind of behavior; it is a property conferred upon that behavior by the people who come into direct or indirect contact with it (Erikson, 1966, p. 6).

Erikson suggests that the deviance identified by a community says something about the boundaries that community sets for itself. He notes that both the conformist and the deviant are created by the same forces in the community, for the two complement one another. Indeed, Erikson says that deviance and conformity are much alike, so much so that they appear in a community at…… [Read More]

References

Erikson, K.T. (1966). Wayward Puritans. New York: Macmillan.

Kelly, DH (1979). Deviant behavior. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Kirkpatrick, D.D. (2005, May 12). House bill toughens penalties for gangs. The New York Times.

Schoeman, M.I. (2002). A classification system and interdisciplinary action plan for the prevention and management of recidivism. University of Pretoria.
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Violent Offenders Can Best Be

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42564460

It is believed that violent offenders operate from a self-centered framework with little, if any, regard for the feelings and well-being of others (Lim, Day & Casey, 2011). By contrast, sociological theories examine the risk factors for violent personality development which include harsh social and environmental issues such childhood abuse and/or neglect, victimization, social exclusion, lack of education, and extreme poverty (MacDonald, Haviland, & Morral, 2009). Poor parenting and the negative influence of certain peer groups may also contribute to violent behavior. An example of this would be violent gang culture among young urban males. For those already at risk, the conditioning and positive sanctioning of violence within the peer group can lead to criminal behavior that persists throughout one's life. Evidence suggests that the proclivity for violent crime increases under harsh living and social conditions.

Cultural and developmental experiences are often at the heart of the "nature vs. nurture"…… [Read More]

References

Lim, L., Day, a., & Casey, S. (2011). Social Cognitive Processing in Violent Male Offenders. Psychiatry, Psychology & Law, 18(2), 177-189. doi:10.1080/13218711003739490.

MacDonald, J.M., Haviland, a., & Morral, a.R. (2009). Assessing the Relationship between Violent and Nonviolent Criminal Activity among Serious Adolescent Offenders. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 46(4), 553-580.

Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.

Rhee, S.H., & Waldman, I.D. (2002). Genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis of twin and adoption studies. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 490-529.
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Crime and Violence

Words: 1708 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70633697

Crime and Violence: Cultural eliefs and iases

Religion and Stereotyping

Diverse sociocultural customs promote diverse forms of aggression; e.g., the conventional idea that males are authorized, by nature, to discipline or control females renders the latter susceptible to sexual abuse and spousal violence. Societal tolerance towards such hampers external intervention, preventing victims from protesting and seeking support. Sexual abuse reporting is also hampered by the stigma certain cultures attach to victims. Further, the powerful link between violence and drunkenness implies societies' and cultures' alcohol utilization trends and the related impacts also promote and warrant violence. Several nations report alcoholism accounting for sixteen percent of female and twenty-six percent of male DALYs (disability-adjusted life-years) loss due to murders. Initiatives challenging socio-cultural customs supporting aggression are normally combined with other strategies (WHO, 2009).

Prior studies have revealed a consistent association between religious participation and positive conduct in society among youngsters. Religious organizations…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstrong, A. C. (2015). Race, Prison Discipline, and the Law. UC IRVINE LAW REVIEW, 759.

Barak, G. (2009). Class, Race, and Gender in Criminology and Criminal Justice: Ways of Seeing Difference. Second Annual Conference on RACE, GENDER and CLASS.

Blow, C. M. (2014). Crime, Bias and Statistics. Retrieved from The New York Times:  https://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/08/opinion/charles-blow-crime-bias-and-statistics.html 

Becker, Gary S. "Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach." Journal of Political Economy 76 (1968): 169 -- 217.
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Crime Arm New York to

Words: 690 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54089909



New York City has some of the toughest gun laws in the country. And it's essentially impossible for a normal, law-abiding citizen to acquire a concealed handgun permit. The result is that the majority of New Yorkers are defenseless against the criminals who wish to prey on them. As pointed out by the NY Times article, the SQF program does little to stop criminals, but does a great deal to strip away a New Yorker's fundamental right of self-defense. This is counterintuitive to public safety. hile crime prevention is an important aspect of police work, the reality is the majority of the time law enforcement arrives after a crime has been committed.

The answer then is to arm New York. Arm the public. Restore their fundamental right of self-defense. There's an old saying, "An armed society is a polite society," and this rings true all across the country (except for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blannelberry, S.H. (2011). Ron Paul on Guns. Guns.com. Retrieved from http://www.guns.com/ron-paul-on-guns.html

McKnight, G.D. (1998). The Last Crusade: Martin Luther King, Jr., the FBI and the Poor People's Campaign. Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Rivera, R., Baker, a. & Roberts, J. (2010, July 6). A Few Blocks, 4 Years, 52,000

Police Stop. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/12/nyregion/12frisk.html?_r=1
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Violent Criminal Behavior Uniqueness of

Words: 2324 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22464658

82).

Psychosocial background of these rapists is inclusive of physical as well as verbal abuse which can be from both or one of the parents. Abuse-based background is seen in more than 56% of the rapists in this category. More than 80% of the rapists belong to divorced households; most of these are adopted or have spent their childhood in foster care. elationships of these rapists with women in the past have failed or did not work based on which hostile feelings have developed against the opposite sex.

Background profiling on rapists has shown that these normally are raised in single parent households with increased issues. Additionally they grow up being physically as well as verbally abused facing sexual deviances. The children facing these conditions are the ones that clearly show tendencies towards sexual promiscuity. In the case of adults, it has been seen that they are married later in…… [Read More]

References

Girod, J.R. (2004). Profiling the Criminal Mind: Behavioral Science and Criminal Investigative Analysis. Iuniverse Inc.

Holmes, M.R., and Holmes, S. (2002). Profiling violent crimes: an investigative tool. Edition 3. Sage.

Innes, B. (2003). Profile of a criminal mind: how psychological profiling helps solve true crimes. Reader's Digest.

Jacobs, D. (2011). Analyzing Criminal Minds: Forensic Investigative Science for the 21st Century: Brain, behavior, and evolution. ABC-CLIO.
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Crime Discuss Reasons Crime Increased Todays Society

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83252970

crime discuss reasons crime increased todays society. (Submit a 500

Crime is a transgression of the law on the part of a person or an organization. In order for a crime to be committed, there has to be some formal law enacted which prohibits an action or an occurrence. Furthermore, that law has to then be transgressed for a crime to take place. One of the main areas of crime is violent crime. Violent crime occurs when individuals act aggressively or hostilely towards one another, and choose to inflict corporal pain and punishment. This sort of crime can take place virtually anywhere. In the United States, for example, violent crime occurs fairly regularly in urban environments. Common types of violent crime include shootings, stabbings, and physical violence in the form of fighting.

Violent crime is actually stratified into blue collar crime, which is crime committed by working class people. Working…… [Read More]

References

Valdmanis, T. (2008). "Senate report blasts SEC's Enron oversight." USA Today. Retrieved from  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/banking/2002-10-06-sec_x.htm
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Crimes Receive the Death Penalty

Words: 1979 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75872096



This solution is applied, expressly or tacitly all over the world. The usual alternative for extremely serious crimes remain life imprisonment. However, "although nearly all member states [of the EU] provide for this type of punishment in their respective penal codes either as a possibility or mandatory, it is understood rather as a principle than as common knowledge" (Use of the Death Penalty Worldwide)

What would it take to work?

There is a big a step ahead that needs to be taken in order to abolish the death penalty, and it involves the mentality of the people. Many Americans are avid for larger and more powerful guns. How would such people accept that the dead penalty is inhumane? Perhaps social campaigns could prove useful in such a case.

What is the history of the death penalty in the U.S.

The United States have a long history of applying the death…… [Read More]

Reference:

1. Joynt, Jen, Shuchart, Carrie "Moral Justice," Atlantic Monthly, 10727825, Mar2003, Vol. 291, Issue 2 ("Moral Justice")

2. Dority, Barbara "Not In My Name," Humanist, 00187399, Mar/Apr93, Vol. 53, Issue 2 ("Not in My Name")

3. "Death Penalty Vigil" Christian Science Monitor, 08827729, 11/17/99, Vol. 91, Issue 246 ("Death Penalty Vigll")

4. "Use of the Death Penalty Worldwide," International Debates; Feb2004, Vol. 2 Issue 2, p34, ("Use of the Death Penalty Worldwide")
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Crime Victims Have Begun to

Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62273380

Secondly, the victim, being more involved with the crime and understanding of the situation as well as more intimate with it than the legislators is better able to articulate his opinion than they. Thirdly, it is only logical that the victim be involved and heard. After all he was the one who was hurt. And finally, victim advocates work towards the objective that victim's rights be granted constitutional protection so that average citizens will be aware that not only do offenders have rights but that victims have rights too and that these are equally as strong. For all these reasons, groups such as the Victims Constitutional Amendment Network is seeking to grant victims rights constitutional protection in order to increase the strength, enforceability, and permanence of victims' rights

Source

Acorn, a. (2004). Compulsory compassion: a critique of restorative justice Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press

Braithwaite, J. (1989) Crime, shame,…… [Read More]

Dignan, J. (2002) Restorative Justice and the Law: The case for an integrated, systematic approach, Stanford Law Review, 52, 168-190

Dignan, James (2003), Towards a Systemic Model of Restorative Justice, Stanford Law Review, 135-156,

The National Center for Victims of Crime. Rights of victims of crime http://www.ncvc.org/ncvc/main.aspx?dbName=DocumentViewer&DocumentID=32463
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Crime Rates and Trends

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63479620

Virginia Beach, VA: Crime ates and Trends

eviewing the rape, robbery and murder trends for Virginia Beach, VA is incredibly revelatory. According to the website city-data.com, Virginia Beach has a crime rate of 184.9 which is significantly lower than the entire U.S. average, which is at 301. In 2012, the number of murders which were committed in this city was at 21, which is the equivalent to 4.7 per 100,000 people. The total number of rapes was at 58, which was at 13 per 100,000 people. The total number of robberies was 326, which functioned at 72.8 per 100,000 people. The number of assaults was at 353, which functioned at 78.9 per 100,000 people. The number of burglaries was 1573, which functioned at 351.4 per 100,000 people. The number of thefts which occurred was 9,662 which totaled at 2,158 per thousand people. The number of auto thefts which occurred was…… [Read More]

References

City-data.com (2013). Virginia Beach Crime Rate: http://www.city-data.com/crime/crime-Virginia-Beach-Virginia.html

Trelllo, J. (2013). How Income Inequality Affects Crime Rates. Retrieved from Financesonline.com, http://financesonline.com/how-income-inequality-affects-crime-rates/
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Crime Reporting Bias

Words: 514 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92078282

Media Bias in Crime eporting

In what ways do the media construct crime images?

In general, the media have tremendous power to influence public thought and opinion, such as by the choice of stories to report as well as by the specific manner in which they describe offenders, victims, and circumstances. When it comes to crime, the media construct images in various realms, including the relative frequency (and risk) of certain types of crimes and the public expectation about what groups of people are more likely to be offenders or victims of those crimes. For example, by choosing to report crimes featuring a white victim and a black offender, the media can portray one race as being composed of more offenders than the other and one race as being composed of more victims than the other. Similarly, by choosing to report more on particularly gruesome crimes, the media can establish…… [Read More]

References

Tate, K. (2014). Illegal Immigrants Would Get Voting Rights, Medicaid, Licenses under

New NY Bill. Breitbart.com. Retrieved online:

http://www.breitbart.com/Breitbart-Texas/2014/06/16/Illegal-Immigrants-Would-Get-Voting-Rights-Medicaid-Licenses-Under-New-Bill

Wilkes, D.E. (2007). Unforgivable Racism: Black Men, Criminal Justice. Res Ipsa (Spring Finals Edition) University of Georgia School of Law. Retrieved online: http://www.law.uga.edu/dwilkes_more/57racism.html
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Crime Theory Case Study

Words: 799 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33285217

Criminal Minds

The constant battle with violent crime is a perplexing problem for those designated to solve these types of problems. This frustrating cycle of failure and success seems to adopt the mantra, "one step forward, two steps back" in its purest sense. As gains are made it is important to understand the root causes of these results in order to better adapt the ever changing environment that creates new problems in this type of battle.

Zimmerman's (2007) case study investigated this struggle within the city of Boston, MA. In this research he described a story of great success through the help of community involvement as violent crime rates and homicides drastically reduced when this method was applied. Unfortunately, the gains were soon lost after a distorted strategy led the leadership awry.

The purpose of this essay is to explore this case study, and apply the research to the current…… [Read More]

References

Travis, L.F., III. (1983). The case study in criminal justice research: Applications to policy analysis.Criminal Justice Review (Georgia State University), 8(2), 46 -- 51. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=14236432&site=eds-live

Wahyuni, D. (2012). The research design maze: Understanding paradigms, cases, methods and methodologies.Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research, 10(1), 69 -- 80. EBSCO Permalink: http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=76405928&site=eds-live

Scott, E., & Zimmerman, P. (2007). Revisiting gang violence in Boston.Harvard Kennedy School of Government. Available from http://cb.hbsp.harvard.edu/cb/web/product_detail.seam?E=3458242&R=HKS329-PDF-ENG&conversationId=192877
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Compare and Contrast the Two Primary Crime Data Sources Used in the United States

Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49906355

Crime Data Sources in the United States

The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime eports and the National Incident-Based eporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels. Notably, the National Incident-Based eporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime eports that were used to track crime in the country. In addition, the Congress uses data from these sources together with those from the National Crime Victimization Survey to guide policy decisions and create suitable responses to crime. While the use of these sources helps in dealing with crime in the United States, they have some similarities and differences between them with regards to methodological…… [Read More]

References:

Addington, L.A. (2008, February). Assessing the Extent of Nonresponse Bias on NIBRS

Estimates of Violent Crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.

"Data Collection Guidelines." (2000, August). National Incident-Based Reporting System.

Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website:  https://www.fortworthpd.com/docmgmt/NIBRS_Volume1_Major_Differences.pdf
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Reasons for Crime

Words: 1708 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68384858

Crime Statistics

The author of this report is to compare and contrast two different areas from a crime rate standpoint. The current rates of crime for different crime types will be assessed as well as the change in those rates from year to year. The two cities that will be compared are New York and Detroit. While there is good and bad news for both of those jurisdictions vis-a-vis their crime rates, the trends for both are noticeably different and the underlying reasons for these variations and trends are not hard to surmise about, although it is hard to be definitive due to the complexity of the cities' respective situations and dynamics. While it is hard to be exhaustive and to make conclusions with certitude, it is clear that the towns are moving in different directions but there are opportunity costs for the good things and downsides to any solution…… [Read More]

References

FBI. (2013, May 8). Federal Bureau of Investigation. FBI. Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http://www.fbi.gov

FoxNews.com. (2013, July 20). How did Detroit fall into the abyss?. Fox News.

Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/07/20/how-

did-detroit-fall-into-abyss/
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Perceptions of Crime and Reality

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35036969

Crime

There is a big difference between perception of crime and actual crime statistics, a gulf that has become quite clear in recent years. The statistics show that crime of all types is decreasing, but it is still widely reported that the public has a perception that crime is increasing. There are a number of factors for this, but the reality is that crime is decreasing in the United States.

Crime Statistics

The FBI tracks hard numbers with respect to crime in the U.S. Violent crime in the U.S. has been trending down for a long time, and the statistics bear this out:

FBI (2015)

The decrease in property crime has been even more dramatic:

FBI (2015)

Perceptions of crime, however, can be influenced by the type of crime, with more severe crimes standing out more in people's minds. That said, murder rates have been steadily decreasing for several years,…… [Read More]

References

FBI (2015). About crime in the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved November 16, 2015 from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2014/crime-in-the-u.s.-2014
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Demographic Differences and Crime

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44380326

Crimes: Attitudes and Perceptions

This study was intended to provide insights into the attitudes and perceptions about crime in the local area. The study focused on the 18 to 25-year-old age group as compared to a 50 to 75-year-old age group. There were ten surveys completed as a representative sample of the local population. The hypothesis was that the older demographic would perceive more crime than the younger generation. The fear of crime has received a considerable amount of attention from the media and researchers alike because it can undermine the quality of life for the individuals that are fearful. Overall, women, older adults, and whites have been found to be more fearful compared to their counterparts and a number of correlates and predictors of fear of crime, such as demographic characteristics, disorder, and prior victimization have also been examined (Gainey, Alper, & Chappell, 2010).

The sample used in the…… [Read More]

References

Gainey, R., Alper, M., & Chappell, A. (2010). Fear of Crime Revisited: Examining the Direct and Indirect Effects of Disorder, Risk Perception, and Social Capital. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 120-137.

Newport, F. (2009, October 13). In U.S., Two-Thirds Continue to Support Death Penalty. Retrieved from Gallup: http://www.gallup.com/poll/123638/in-u.s.-two-thirds-continue-support-death-penalty.aspx

Appendix

Respondent
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Crime on March 9th 2013 Two New

Words: 5716 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8975565

Crime

On March 9th, 2013, two New York City police officers shot and killed a sixteen-year-old Kimani Gray, and claimed afterward that he had brandished a handgun at them after being told to show his hands (Goodman, 2013). More remarkable than the New York Police Department's killing of a young black male, however, was the outpouring of community grief and anger that followed the shooting. The following Monday, March 11th, saw what started as a nighttime vigil turn into a mob, parts of which ended up looting a ite Aid chain store and a local bodega, and by Wednesday night of that week, forty-six people had been arrested, a bricks had been thrown at both a police officer and a police van (Goodman, 2013). The explosion of disorder and discontentment took some in the media and policing community by surprise, but these evens could only be surprising to someone lacking…… [Read More]

References

Alanezi, F. (2010). Juvenile delinquency in kuwait: Applying social disorganization theory.

Domes, 19(1), 68-81.

Borg, M.J., & Parker, K.F. (2001). Mobilizing law in urban areas: The social structure of homicide clearance rates. Law & Society Review, 35(2), 435-466.

Brisman, A. (2011). Advancing critical criminology through anthropology. Western Criminology
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Crime and Punishment in Dante's

Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56533510

hen considering the effectiveness and logic of this, I do not think that similar methods should be used to punish those who have been judged guilty of crimes in our era.

The first reason I disagree with Dante's methods is that there seems to be no point to the punishments given. I believe that punishing people in a way that is fitting to the crime will only work to reinforce the kind of behavior that led to the crime. One clear example is with people who have committed wrath, with all these people placed together so they will be violent against each other. In considering these people, there is little chance that they will become better people because of the punishment. Instead, they will have little choice but to become increasingly violent. In this way, the crime fitting the punishment has no positive outcome, but has a negative one. It…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dante, A. "Inferno." The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Eds. Sarah Lawall and Maynard Mack. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 1999: 1293-1409.
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Crime the Purpose of This

Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71668087

Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.

Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352

Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime 

Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.

Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
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Low-Crime Community an Analysis of

Words: 2387 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20446829

In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)

It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
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Uniform Crime Report UCR Is

Words: 1926 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48132298

d.).

Figure 7 depicts 2006 Florida violent crime statistics; evolving from aggravated assault, robbery, forcible rape and murder.

Figure 7: 2006 Florida Violent Crime ates (adapted from UC crime statistics, 2008).

The 2006 National violent crime rates included: Murder -- 1.2%; Forcible ape -- 6.5%; obbery -- 31.6%; Aggravated Assault -- 60.7% Compared to Florida's 2006 violent crime rates, the murder rate and robbery rates and forcible rates are lower; however the aggravated assault rate is higher (Uniform Crime eports, N.d.).

Figure 8 depicts 2006 Florida property crime rates; evolving from burglary, larceny theft and vehicular theft.

Figure 8: 2006 Florida Property Crime ates (adapted from UC crime statistics, 2008).

The National 2006 property crime rates included: Burglary rate -- 21.9%; Larceny theft rate -- 66.2%; Vehicular theft rate -- 11.9%; Compared to Florida's 2006 property crime rates, the vehicular theft rate is lower; however the burglary rate and larceny…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Florida Department of Law Enforcement. (2008). Understanding Florida's UCR data. Retrieved July 11, 2009 from http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/getdoc/685508 BC-ce34-4423

b867-827ed0dc6fac/datahistory.aspx

Hanley, Matt. (2009). Naperville's crime rate up, but still low. Naperville Sun, The (IL).

Retrieved July 13, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1N1128F26EE753542F8.html
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Categorizing Crimes Against Persons and Crimes Against Property

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86074583

Categorizing Crimes:

Criminal law basically classifies crime into various categories that dictates the kind of criminal act, the mental condition, and the extent of punishment. The most common categories of crime are crime against persons, white-collar crimes, and crimes against property. Moreover, crime is further categorized by the selected punishment for the offense such as misdemeanor, felony, and petty misdemeanor. A felony is regarded as the most serious offense that is punishable by imprisonment exceeding one year while misdemeanors are offenses that are punishable by imprisonment of a maximum of one year. This is primarily because they are less serious crimes that do not involve incarceration in prison (Schneider, n.d.). Actually, almost all misdemeanor sentences are usually served in a local or county jail. In contrast, petty misdemeanors are crimes that do not need imprisonment such as that are always punishable by a fine.

Crimes against Persons and Crimes against…… [Read More]

References:

Crossman, A. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com/od/Deviance/a/Types-Of-Crimes.htm

"Crimes Against Property." (n.d.). Chapter 13. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.sagepub.com/lippmanccl2e/study/supplements/Florida/FL13.pdf

Schneider, S.W. (n.d.). Types of Crimes. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from http://www.netplaces.com/paralegal/criminal-law/types-of-crimes.htm

"State v. Stewart." (n.d.). Justia.com -- U.S. Law. Retrieved March 8, 2013, from  http://law.justia.com/cases/new-mexico/court-of-appeals/2005/f580-1c753-1cc91.html
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Uniform Crime Report and Its Accuracy Specifically

Words: 782 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41942368

Uniform Crime Report and its accuracy, specifically how classification errors can impact the accuracy of that report. The Uniform Crime Report is considered the gold standard in U.S. crime statistics because it is the national clearinghouse for statistics. It permits comparisons of crime rates by state because they are classified in the same way at a national level. However, there are some problems with the Uniform Crime Report's statistical methodology. For example, one may be able to compare sexual assault statistics across states, but the reporting of that statistics will still depend on individual state classification of a crime. Not all problems with the use of the Uniform Crime Report are inherent in the process. For example, the article studied focuses on classification errors and how that can impact the report's accuracy. This is not an inherent problem, as the Uniform Crime Report does define the different crimes in such…… [Read More]

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UCR Uniform Crime Report

Words: 1127 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87214459

UC Uniform Crime eport

Uniform Crime eport

It is the belief of some people that the Uniform Crime eporting (UC) system, through the Uniform Crime eports collected by the FBI, provides a completely accurate indicator of crime in the United States. However, not everyone shares this opinion. There are two reasons why some people feel the UC is not accurate as a representation of crime throughout the United States, and both of them are highly valid in nature. First, the UC is a voluntary program (UC, n.d.). This means that the areas that report to it can do so only if they want to. They do not need to report if they choose not to do so, and they may also not report every crime or every group of crimes. Second, there are only 18,000 law enforcement agencies reporting, and they can only report crimes they are notified about (UC,…… [Read More]

References

Lynch, J.P., & Addington, L.A. (2007). Understanding crime statistics: revisiting the divergence of the NCVS and UCR. Cambridge studies in criminology. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Rosen, L. (1995). The creation of the uniform crime report. Social Science History 19(2):215 -- 238.

UCR and NIBRS Participation. (n.d.) U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Washington, D.C.
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Gender and Crime

Words: 881 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31654235

Gender and Crime

How would each of the three critical feminist perspectives -- adical, Marxist, and Socialist -- explain this phenomenon? Do different life experiences by men and women impact the overrepresentation of men in the criminal justice system? How do gender differences impact sentencing? Provide examples to support your answer. How does allowing citizens to carry guns prevent crimes? Give relevant examples.

The radical feminist would look at the attacks on women based upon the fact that they have been ignored throughout history. This makes them an easier target for men to overpower them and conduct these activities. Marxists believe that crime occurs because of social inequalities. This is from them being pushed into the lower classes of society. To lash out, they will directly target and attack women in order to take advantage of those who have the perceptions of power and influence. Socialists believe that the ultimate…… [Read More]

References

Feminist Perspective on Work and Class. (2010). Stanford University. Retrieved from:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-class/ 

Ellwood, C. (2004). Sociology and Modern Social Problems. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.

Ryder, E. (2011). Financial Crime in the 21st Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
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Youth Crime in Canada and

Words: 1587 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88957337

The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.

CONCLUSION

As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.

Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.

Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.

Fear of crime is…… [Read More]

References

Schissel, Bernard (1997) Youth crime, moral panics, and the news: the conspiracy against the marginalized in Canada. ('moral panic' caused by increased incidence of youth crime in Canada, and young offenders identified as coming from homes led by single mothers and racial minorities)(Reconfiguring Power: Challenges for the 21st Century) Journal of Social Justice

Sprott, Jane B (1996) Understanding public views of youth crime and the youth justice system.(Canada) Canadian Journal of Criminology

Doob, Anthony N. And Julian Roberts 1988 Public punitiveness and public knowledge of the facts: Some Canadian Surveys. In N. Walker and M. Hough (eds.), Public Attitudes to Sentencing. Aldershot: Gower.
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Dark Figure of Crime

Words: 2470 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29574271

Dark Figure of Crime

The amount of crime in society gets known when it is reported to the police, through public response to victim surveys and studies of offenders who admit committing crime, and when transmitted to other agencies, such as hospital accident wards, battered women's refuge centers and similar ones (Young 2001). Other than these, the amount of crime committed is unknown. That unknown volume (of crime) that does not get reported, thus not registered, in criminal statistics, constitutes the dark figure of crime.

Statistician Adolphe Quetelet of the 1830s recognized this problem and modern statisticians do, too. All current methods of collecting crime incidence still have a dark figure. Victimization surveys, like the ritish Crime Survey (CS) and the National Crime Survey (NCS) are more accurate (Young). In 2000, CS estimated that the dark figure, or the actual extent of crime, was 4 1/2 more than what was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dougherty, J. (2000) Britain, Australia Top U.S. In Violent Crime. World Net Daily. http://power.consumercide.com/aust-uk-us-crimefigs.html

George, M. (2002) Tackling Crimes: Drug Links. BBC News Online. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/uk/2253559.shtm

Kury, H. (2000) Concerning the Dark Figure of Crime in Eastern Europe. Max-Planck Institute. http://www.asc41/www/2000/absdm005.htm

Mason, T. (1991) Official Statistics and the Dark Figure. Lecture 2, p 196. Social Trends. HMSO: Central Statistical Office. http://peso-click-internet.fr/tmason/WebPages/Deviance/Deviance2.htm
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Rising U S Crime Rate Crime in the

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59061437

ising U.S. Crime ate

Crime in the United States

Crime in the United States took a sharp uptick starting in the middle of the 20th century but has actually leveled off since then, at least for the most part. However, even with the moderation in crime, especially in larger cities that have traditionally been problematic, crime in some cities is still alarmingly high and there are some cultural and social trends that are becoming more and more prevalent and, by extension, more commonly talked about as well. This essay will explore a couple of the more notorious examples of this in motion.

Crime Falling

One study conducted for this research noted that predicting the crime rate at any given point in time can be exceedingly maddening to predict because of how a single happenstance or course of events can have a massive effect on the overall rates. The study uses…… [Read More]

References

Burdett, K., Lagos, R., & Wright, R. (2003). Crime, Inequality, and Unemployment.

American Economic Review, 93(5), 1764-1777.

Carrington, K. (2006). Does Feminism Spoil Girls? Explanations for Official Rises in Female Delinquency. Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Criminology

(Australian Academic Press), 39(1), 34-53.
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Children Who Commit Crimes of Violence Be

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14900437

Children who commit crimes of violence be tried as adults in the criminal justice system?

Juveniles should be treated as adults in the criminal justice system. The paper is an analysis of this view and also deals with an opposing argument.

Most societies seek a sort of "revenge" on the habitual offenders of its norms of behavior and this is termed as retribution. In the case of young offenders, this is sometimes translated into putting them in adult courts instead of juvenile courts. This also reflects the anger of society for their crimes. This is an important question that has to be looked into, especially in the social milieu of the United States. The trial of youth as adults is already accepted in some of the states, when there are incidences of serious crime. At the same time we keep on referring to the children as the greatest available resource…… [Read More]

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Social Dimensions of Crime

Words: 928 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80292698

Social Class And Crime

For this study the researcher chose to explore social class and crime rates, because while there are many studies conducted on race and crime and gender and crime or related factors, social class seems to be something that is relatively little regarded in modern times at least in places like the U.S. Social class is often a large predictor of factors including crime in many countries overseas, but it is sometimes something that is overlooked in the U.S., where people assume democracy guarantees people the right to safety. Studies suggest however that this is very often not the case.

Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy.

In this research study, the authors explore social cohesion and collective efficacy, which they define as the willingness of neighbors to intervene "on behalf of the common good" which they hypothesize is essential to reducing violence. The…… [Read More]

References:

Flango, V.E. & Sherbenou, E.L. (2006 March Online) Poverty, Urbanization & Crime.

Criminology. Vol. 14, Issue 3. Pp. 331-346.

Logan, J.R., & Stults, B.J. (1999 May). Racial differences in exposure to crime: The city and suburbs of Cleveland in 1990. Criminology. Vol. 37(2) pp.251-276.

Markowitz, F.E., Bellair, P.E., Liska, A.E., Liu, J. (2006 Mar). Extending social disorganization theory: Modeling the relationships between cohesion, disorder, and fear. Criminology. Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 293-319.