1990 United States Government Passed the Hate Term Paper

Download this Term Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Term Paper:

1990, United States government passed the Hate Crimes Statistics Act. This mandated that state, local and federal law enforcement agencies report data on crimes that reflected a bias against a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, and/or ethnicity/national origin. Several years later, people with disabilities were added to this list. Data collection was placed under the auger of the FBI, which complied by publishing an annual report through its Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. This program started to publish a review of national hate crimes in 1990 entitled Hate Crime Statistics, 1990: A Resource Book. By 1992, the publication reflected the reported data of all states. Because certain states, such as Wisconsin, penalize perpetrators more for the same crime if the motivation for that crime is thought to be categorical hatred, statistics reflect the opinions of law enforcement agencies.

Because of this wealth of new data, in addition to the data collected through the most recent decennial census, we are able to compare hate crime statistics to other factors by region that may contribute to the creation of an atmosphere in which hate crimes are more likely. This in turn affects public policy. For instance, in the backlash against people of Islamic faith or Middle Eastern ancestral origin that followed the 9/11 terrorist attacks, federal, state and local law enforcement agencies were able to relay the occurrence of hate crimes to the media, which in turn launched a tolerance campaign aimed at promoting tolerance. As a result, these attacks subsided.

For this study, I have collected data on hate crimes from 25 American cities; specifically, I have collected 2001 data (the most recent available) on hate crimes related to race, religion, sexual orientation and ethnicity and also data for these cities related to racial breakdown, average income, immigrant population, and total population.

The data revealed that only 5 of the 25 cities surveyed had 1.9 or more incidents of hate crime for every 10,000 people. These cities were Boston, San Francisco, Portland, Minneapolis, and Los Angeles. This was interesting in that none of the southern cities mentioned made it into these top five: the highest ranking southern city was Memphis, with.723 hate crimes for every 10 thousand people. Three of the cities with relatively high numbers of reported hate crimes were west coast cities, together with Minneapolis and Boston. Boston had the most overwhelmingly high number of hate crimes, with 3.5 for every 10 thousand people. Of the 2,188 hate crimes reported, over a third of this number, or 763, were race-related. It should be noted that ethnicity and religion-related hate crimes were sometimes hard to distinguish, as in the case of middle-eastern peoples.

Boston was an interesting case. With 209 reported hate crimes, it was third among cities overall in the number of hate crimes committed after Los Angeles and New York. 95 of these crimes were racially motivated, 54 were motivated by ethnicity, 31 by sexual orientation and 29 by religion. This is a relatively large number of crimes for a city that numbers just under 600 thousand. The city is also 54.4% white and over a quarter of its population was born somewhere outside the United States. This is a statistically lower number of white people and a statistically higher number of foreign-born people than other cities in the United States, but not so much as Los Angeles, New York or some other cities. The average number of hate crimes per 10 thousand in cities surveyed was.763.

Some cities featured particularly strongly for certain types of hate crimes, such as violence against homosexuals in San Francisco. This is probably due to a larger gay population. However, crimes against homosexuals, which was smallest in number of all the crimes listed, was not limited to cities with large homosexual populations such as San Francisco, Washington, New York, and Los Angeles. New York had an overwhelming number of crimes associated with religion compared to other factors. Religion-related crimes outnumbered race-related crimes in New York City by nearly 3 to one. This shouldn't be seen as unusual; New York has always been home to religious extremists from a number of different ethnicities, including Jews and Muslims. It should be remembered that for a large part of 2001, when the survey was being conducted, the City had a large contingent of American servicemen actively stationed in…[continue]

Cite This Term Paper:

"1990 United States Government Passed The Hate" (2003, May 15) Retrieved October 24, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/1990-united-states-government-passed-the-149627

"1990 United States Government Passed The Hate" 15 May 2003. Web.24 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/1990-united-states-government-passed-the-149627>

"1990 United States Government Passed The Hate", 15 May 2003, Accessed.24 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/1990-united-states-government-passed-the-149627

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Catholic Church in Spain and the United States

    Catholic church and public policy have remarked that the members of American clergy in general, without even excepting those who do not admit religious liberty, are all in favour of civil freedom; but they do not support any particular political system. They keep aloof from parties, and from public affairs. In the United States religion exercises but little influence upon laws, and upon the details of public opinion; but it

  • History of Censorship in US Media

    History of Censorship in U.S. Media Censorship is the official prohibition or restriction of any type of expression that is believed to threaten the political, social, or moral order, and may be imposed by local or national governmental authority, by a religious body, or even by a powerful private group (Censorship pp). These bans or restrictions may be applied to the mails, speech, the press, the theater, dance, art, literature, photography,

  • Hate Crimes the Definition of

    C. By Michael Shively (June, 2005), the first hate crime laws were enacted during the sixties, seventies, and eighties. The first states to pass hate crime legislation were Oregon and Washington in 1981. The first federal hate crime legislation, Shively explains, was debated in 1985, and the first federal statute related to hate crimes was the Hate Crimes Statistics Act, passed in 1990. Subsequent to that Act, other pieces of

  • Senator Rodney Ellis Texas State Senator Rodney

    Senator Rodney Ellis Texas State Senator Rodney Ellis, a Democrat representing District 13 in Houston, has been a member of the Senate since 1990. He graduated from Texas Southern University with a Bachelor of Arts; he received his M.P.A. (Master of Public Administration) from the Lyndon Baines Johnson School of Public Affairs, and got his J.D. (Justice of the Peace / Law Degree) from the University of Texas Law School. The

  • International Terrorism State Department Defines

    Terrorist tactics are resorted to because groups think they are effective. Beliefs, such as this, are the root cause of terrorism. The UN must show that these beliefs are wrong. The UN High-Level Panel is also proposing a clear definition of terrorism for the purpose The second main element should make it difficult for terrorist groups to travel, receive financial support or obtain nuclear or radiological materials. In the pursuit of

  • First Amendment the Founding of

    " Although the results then were not complementary to this clause of the First Amendment, the actions made then opened the floodgates for redresses of grievances against the United States government. The validity and effectiveness of the First Amendment as well as all other amendments of the United States Constitution can be determined through various tests in time. Fortunately, the First Amendment stood steadfast and changed various facets of American lives

  • Congress of Vienna Amidst the

    " (19:481) in order to wield the power of the opaque concept of 'national security' in foreign policy, the executers must use a careful construct of realities and perceptions that hang between an actual danger and a perceived threat. (9:144) Taking into account the internal roots of an external problem, to have heft in the weight of international opinion, alliances are key to public diplomacy. The first Golf War reflected a

Read Full Term Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved