Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
A major point of the above is that the winners of wars typically write the history books and their reverence and view of history may not be all that positive. Examples like that litter the pages of history including the Roman Empire, the Ottoman Empire and so on. Architecture is molded and shaped to this very day by countries generally take a dim view of religion and the associated architecture (the U.S.S.R./Russia, China, etc.) while there are other situations where architecture is protected and argued about by multiple sects or religious (the Middle East, etc.) and this has been true in the 19th Century and it remains true to this very day.
Another dimension of architecture for which examples from the 19th century are prevalent and easy to spot can be seen in the houses that architects build for themselves. One such house was the Bloemenwerf House on the outskirts of Brussels, Belgium. Designed by Henry van de Velde, the house is fairly large in nature but uses neutral colors and there are no gleaming or overarching towers or spires. Instead, the building is simply made of masonry and timber and is comprised of just two (albeit big) main floors (Great Buildings, 2014). However, even vast buildings can be fairly non-descript yet impressive. An example of this would be the beautiful Biblioteque Ste. Genevieve in Paris, France. There is nothing terribly opulent or fanciful about this library, but it is rather large and impressive despite this and boats a cavernous yet not warehouse-like appearance. Wrought-iron arches span the roof and simple lamps hang down from the rafters throughout the entire length of the building. Designed by Henri Labrouste and built in the 1840's and finished in 1851, the urban-dwelling library is quite impressive without really trying to be. It is impressive yet functional but is not trying all that hard to look that way (Great Buildings, 2014).
On the flipside of architecture blending in or not being flashy and different from churches or other structures that are standouts in the area are neighborhoods and areas where the entire area contributes to the dynamic and appearance of the city. Example would be colonial-era building of Virginia. Even newer buildings including those built in the 21st century are designed and structured to fit in with the work of the 19th century buildings of the United States. While not in the 19th century, the works of the Mayans and biblical-era buildings of the Middle East, including those for all sects and religions in the era including Islam, Judaism and Christianity, permeate all edges and areas of the city segment, the city at large or even the country. Many cities in Italy are full of culture and expansive to beautiful architecture and a lot of those structures and buildings were put up in the 1800's. That being said, architecture is not always about flash and opulence, as made clear by cultures that knowingly and intentionally stay away from being too flash or over the top and this is even true of their religions and other foundations for their lives and beliefs.
One last thing that can be discussed that greatly influenced culture and architecture during the 1800's (and before…as well as since) was the colonizing and settling of all corners of the world by the British, Spanish and French. While much of the colonization occurred before the 1800's, it was still in full effect for much of that century and that included the architecture. Even though the empires of those three countries fell away much like the Roman Empire before it, the presence of those countries lingers on and it is also obvious that a lot of the prior architecture was either blended with those empires or that they replaced it with their own. Indeed, much of what remained of those colonized areas was gone by the years of World War II. Just as a few examples, Puerto Rico is an American territory in the modern day but it a Spanish enclave until the end of the 1800's. India and Pakistan were controlled by Great Britain until World War II but India initially spun off and then Pakistan broke away from India. In short, the architecture for the preceding century and a half (which would have included the 1800's) included Indian, Muslim and British influences.
There is no doubt a lot of architecture in the formerly colonized countries, including a great amount from the 1800's, that was torn away or otherwise changed to meet the demands and preferences of the colonizing country. Indeed, what is now known as the United States was created just before the 19th century when the American Revolution happened. However, as the American nation has proven not all culture is destroyed and removed when the control of a country changes hands as a lot of the northeast still permeates with the same architecture. The United States had plenty of time to tear down the architecture and make their own during the 1800's. While they did do some of that, especially in newly controlled areas as the United States moved west, they certainly did not lay waste to what was created by Great Britain.
In the end, architecture is very much a function of power, control, religion and influence. Some cultures and groups make it a point to make their own statement while others just want to blend in. Some groups want to make their own architectural imprint the norm and the only source of influence while others want to eliminate any contrarian viewpoints and presences. As the years go on, tolerance and preservation of the treasures and buildings of yesteryear is more and more than the norm but crimes and misdeeds of prior years, including many in the 1800's, are still being corrected to this very day. Vulcanization and separation is still prevalent in some areas and cities as some areas are home to a specific religion or culture even in countries like the United States in cities like San Francisco and New York. However, many of the treasures of the 19th century remain to this day and are being preserved for the future.
Appendix I -- Catholic Cathedral Basilica of Assumption -- Baltimore, MD
Appendix II - Trinity Church in New York (Gothic Revival Style)
Appendix III -- Atelier Elvira -- Munich -- Circa 1898
Source: (Alexander, 2010).
Alexander, Z. (2010). Metrics of Experience: August Endell's Phenomenology of Architecture. Grey Room, (40), 51-83
BostonCollege. (2014, April 21). 19th Century American Architecture. 19th Century
American Architecture. Retrieved April 21, 2014, from http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/fa267/fa267_19.html
Evan, "Figures, Doors & Passages','The Developed Surface'. Translations from Drawing
to Building, Cambridge Mass: MIT, 1997.
Elias the Civilizing Process: The History of Manners and State Formation and Civilization, Oxford: Blackwell,1994.
GreatBuildings.com. (2014, April 21). Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve by Henri Labrouste
at GreatBuildings. GreatBuildings. Retrieved April 21, 2014, from http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/Biblio_Ste_Genevieve
Hanning, R.W. And Rosand, D. (ed). Castiglione:the Ideal and the Real in Renaissance
Culture. Yale University Press, New Haven, London.1983
Moffson, S.H. (2003). Identity and Assimilation in Synagogue Architecture in Georgia,
1870-1920. Perspectives In Vernacular Architecture, 9151-165.
Waddy, Patricia.17th Century Roman Palaces: the art and use of the plan, Cambridge,
Mass: MIT Press,1990.[continue]
"19th Century Architecture" (2014, April 21) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/19th-century-architecture-188380
"19th Century Architecture" 21 April 2014. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/19th-century-architecture-188380>
"19th Century Architecture", 21 April 2014, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/19th-century-architecture-188380
In Braque's "Woman with a Guitar we can see the foreshadowing of the Synthetic Cubism period, when he introduces stenciling and lettering, a practice that Picasso was soon to imitate. Figure 7: Picasso, Le Guitariste"(1910 Figure 8: Braque "Woman with a Guitar" (1913 Synthetic Cubism/Collage 1912-1914: Braque was beginning to experiment further now by mixing materials such as sand and sawdust into his paint to create a more textured, built- up look and what
Four men stand out as the penultimate figures of Post-Impressionism, namely, Georges Suerat (1859-1891), Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Paul Gauguin (1843-1903) and Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890), all of whom at first accepted the Impressionist methods and then moved away from it toward a new type of painting. In the case of Cezanne, the basis of his art had much to do with studying nature in a new way, for his aim
20th Century Architecture Architecture in the 20th Century As said by a famous spokesperson, architecture aims at eternity. Throughout history, architecture has always asked for creativity and coordination from those who possess the skills to excel in this field. Throughout the course of the nineteenth century, architecture had very little to do with industrial activities and rather was only concerned with structures and monuments which symbolised the pride of a country or
From approximately 1930 until the 1980s, rectangular and functional spaces were the chief form of architecture around the world in general. The latter part of the 20th century -- the 1980s onward -- saw change once again, however (2008). For the most part, 20th century architecture, however, "focused on machine aesthetics or functionality and failed to incorporate any ornamental accents in the structure" (2008). The designs were, for the
He believed asylums should be planned to encourage work, both physical and mental. To get away from the stress and turmoil of the city, an asylum should be erected out in the country where there was space for patients "to work, walk, and congregate. He called for plenty of large windows, one central building, separate buildings for the genders, and separate wings for wards" (Haller & Larsen, 2005, p.
Indeed, the first use of the term 'architect' as against 'master mason' in France dates from 1511 and reflects the increasing influence of Italian ideas" ( P88). Heller goes on to state that "…humanist learning in architecture not only raised the status of the architect, it also helped to foster a new division of labor in construction…"( Heller 88). 1.4. Significance The innovative design that was exhibited in this construction was
Similarly, English architect Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1812 to 1852), best-known for his designs for the Houses of Parliament building of 1835, considered the Gothic style as the cornerstone of European Christianity and saw moral purity and spiritual authenticity in the religious architecture of the Middle Ages while also "glorifying the Medieval craftsmen who produced it." 7 Clearly, Pugin saw the historical past through the eyes of an idealist who clung