8th Grade Science Literature Review Critical Analysis Essay

Download this Essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Essay:

8th Grade Science

Literature Review Critical Analysis

Middle school science is a critical preparatory program for high school science education. Teaching 8th grade science is a component of the foundation for high school biology, chemistry and physics which are essentially college preparatory courses. The ____Insert district name info here____ Independent School District considers science in the 8th grade to have measured core competencies of problem solving with unit conversion, understanding and applying the scientific method, and demonstrating an understanding of scientific discover through laboratory experiments. Science in the 8th grade within this district is taught in a lecture classroom adjacent to a laboratory with benches and equipment. The curriculum covers primarily the hard physical sciences of chemistry and physics with associated laboratory experiments and experimental write ups. Students are expected to focus on application of concepts that apply concrete, but difficult-to-visualize ideas to experiments so that the principles covered within these topics are discovered to be verifiable by the scientific method.

Chemistry is among the most powerful of the scientific disciplines in terms of the impact on life and culture. Chemicals surround society from the main-stream media attention paid to toxins in the environment and water supply to the healthcare benefits of pharmaceuticals to the performance of polymers in structural materials. The science of chemistry requires both a fundamental understanding of certain "basic" concepts and a capability of applying those concepts in continuously developing new situations as a student learns new topics in the syllabus. One basic concept that carries through chemistry and other scientific disciplines deals with the concept of gas laws. Gas laws are fundamental physical chemistry equations that explain the interaction of the physical state of matter known as a gas and relate the following:

The pressure that a gas exerts on its container

The volume that a gas takes at a given pressure and temperature

The known quantity of gas in mass or number of molecules

Although these relationships may appear trivial, the laws that govern them in the physical world apply to every science from biology with respiration to engineering in submarines to atmospheric science with weather. The following literature review will address whether or not the concept of demonstrations aids in the understanding of gas laws for 8th grade science student as they enter into high school chemistry.

Part B: Literature Review

High school chemistry concepts have a basis in the comfort of a student's exposure to scientific method and the rationalization that a topic can be tested to verify a hypothesis. A significant component of high school chemistry and college general chemistry focuses on gas laws which govern the relationships between volume, temperature, pressure and mass of a gas. The concept is often introduced as a system of equations relating these properties to an ideal gas. This concept captures the student for which mathematical concepts are taught in an abstract concept but can leave more visual and empirical learners quickly left behind. Three methods of teaching gas laws through demonstration are reviewed below with a critical evaluation of the method of teaching, followed by a review of the status of assessment in teaching chemistry to early introductory science students.

Article 1

Students have conceptions about gases and the physical properties of gases and the matter that composes them. Testing indicates that students often believe that gases weigh less than solids or liquids and that water decomposes when boiled (Mayer, 2011). The education topic tested observed introductory science students targeting the basic understanding of gases related to the transition from liquid to gas, volume, and weight. Students were provided a test that asked a set of 10 basic questions to assess the understanding of the relationship between volume, weight, and the state of matter. The results of the test indicated that the most common misconceptions were that the mass of matter decreases when a liquid changes to a gas during boiling, and that this change of matter is a destructive process. Without offering correction to the students after the examination, the educator presented a demonstration with a hypothesis that tested:

1) The weight of a closed system where a mass of water was boiled and the vapor was contained and allowed to expand to see if the mass was conserved

2) The volume of water after condensation

The demonstration presented students with a fixed volume of water that was boiled and allowed to expand into a balloon. The data showed that the mass did not change through the system if the gas was retained although a substantial apparent change in volume was noted. Cooling of the system reverted the volume of gas into the boiling vessel and the volume of water was noted to be conserved as liquid water. A subsequent repeat of the test resulted in a substantial increase in correct responses for the understanding of gas mass and phase changes.

Article 2

The difficulty encountered in students mastering an understanding of gas relationships is often assumed to be limitations on algebra skills. The gas equations rely on simple substitutions of algebra in multiplication and division (Robins 2009). The assumption that algebra skills were the lynchpin for the understanding of gas laws was tested by assessing student's competency in algebra. There was no subsequent correlation between algebra skills and understanding of gas laws and substitutions in those laws. Subsequent testing in the relationship of both units and unit substitution and the physical concept of gas volume as shown by demonstration and experimental evaluation resulted in improved competency on tests of gas law understanding.

Article 3

General gas law concepts can be taught to introductory science students with the most rudimentary of materials and equipment and these demonstrations can have profound impact on their understanding of the concepts that underpin the gas laws themselves. Empty plastic water bottles can be used to show dramatic changes that occur for gases with changes in temperature (Campbell 2011). Students are taught that the volume of a gas changes with temperature and that if the temperature of a gas within an open container is increased, the number of molecules within that container decreases as the heated molecules escape. Capping the container and allowing it to cool can show changes in the container volume. Students were presented with 1/2 liter plastic water bottles, chemical hand warmers and a hypothesis regarding the effect of temperature on the gas within the bottle. Warming the air within the bottle and then capping it demonstrated a violent change in the volume as the bottle collapsed upon cooling. Students were able to explain the concept of the effect of temperature on a gas and the number of molecules after the demonstration.

Article 4

A difficulty in the understanding of any applied science demonstration is the application of assessment in determining if the demonstration or experiment is teaching the students what the concept is and if the way that concept is taught can be accurately measured. Chemistry and demonstrations used in this basic science are not exempt from the need for assessment and the invoking of a physical experiment should have a core of a desired outcome based on a topic in chemical education or the exercise is a waste of time (Bretz 2012). Assessment tools should observe first the desire to understand how the students grasp of a concept will be measured followed by what an educator wants them to know. If the concept is gas laws or relationships between gases and their physical properties one should design the curriculum to be able to answer how the students will be assessed and then input the experiments, examples, lecture and problems to provide an outcome that can be assessed.

Part C Action Plan for Implementation in Classroom

The introduction of gas physical properties and their relationships to introductory science students has been improved…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"8th Grade Science Literature Review Critical Analysis" (2012, May 14) Retrieved December 8, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/8th-grade-science-literature-review-critical-79968

"8th Grade Science Literature Review Critical Analysis" 14 May 2012. Web.8 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/8th-grade-science-literature-review-critical-79968>

"8th Grade Science Literature Review Critical Analysis", 14 May 2012, Accessed.8 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/8th-grade-science-literature-review-critical-79968

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Framework of Implementing the Z Mathematical Model to a Sixth Grade...

    Nature of the ProblemPurpose of the ProjectBackground and Significance of the Problem Brain Development Specific Activities to engage students Data-Driven Instruction Community Component of Education Research QuestionsDefinition of TermsMethodology and Procedures Discussion & ImplicationsConclusions & Application ntroduction The goal of present-day educational reformers is to produce students with "higher-order skills" who are able to think independently about the unfamiliar problems they will encounter in the information age, who have become "problem solvers" and have "learned how to learn,

  • Framework for Implementing the Z Mathematical Model to a Six Grade...

    positive outcome in the educational progress for the students resulting from applying the Z. Model framework. In Mr. Zander's classroom, the average improvement in test scores is 16.75 points. The is the rise in test scores resulting from the students taking the same standardize test, once at the beginning of the school year, and a second time after 6-7 months Z. Model application. The baseline group data was taken form

  • Teacher Work Sample

    Teaching Unit for an 8th-Grade Language Arts and Literature Class Contextual Factors Community, District, and School Factors Classroom Factors Student Characteristics Learning Goals and Objectives Pre-Assessments Aligned with Learning Goals and Objectives Evaluation of Pre- and Post-Assessments Criteria Used to Measure Student Performance for Learning Goals Plan for Formative Assessment to Gauge Student Progress Design for Instruction Explanation of Selected Activities: No. 1. How Content Relates to Instructional Goal(s) and b. How the Activity Stems from Pre-Assessment Information and Instructional Context Materials and

  • Metacognition and Academic Achievement

    Metacognition and Academic Achievement in College Students THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METACOGNITION AND ACADEMI Constituent Elements of Metacognition Metacognitive Awareness Inventory Gender differences in metacognitive skills Relationship to Other Concepts Growth of Metacognition Over Time The Relationship between Metacognition and Academic Achievement in College Students It is obvious today those college professors are being faced with classrooms that are full of students who are coming to them with different levels of knowledge in regards to the way they

  • Crystal Meth Addiction and Abuse Problems in Los Angeles County

    Meth Addiction and Abuse Problems Meth Crystal Addiction and Abuse Problems in Los Angeles County Meth addiction and abuse problems are on a rise in Los Angeles County and many other places in other countries. Its use and abuse has become so common that some people have started referring to it as the new heroin. Just like any other drug, the use of this drug above its therapeutic dose has produced toxicities

  • Asynchronous Javascript and XML AJAX

    Asynchronous JAVA Script & XML (AJAX) Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) are set of technologies with different function that work together to allow the client-server to create a rich web application (Deursen & Mesbah, 2009). The purpose of this paper is to describe more about AJAX, how is it used to create a web application, the difference from classical web application, companies utilizing this technique, security issues, and how to migrate

  • Gold Jewelry a History

    Because is easily shaped, these above-mentioned items were made to form by a skilled craftsman's hammer and by casting; gold was engraved and embossed; gold was used in granule form for decorative purposes; gold was pounded into thin sheets for "covering furniture, wooden coffins… for plating copper and silver and for cutting into thin strips to make wire" (Lukas, 264). Lukas explains that he measured several specimens of sheet gold


Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved