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This condition slows down the heating process and also because of convection currents. Land and water have different capacities for absorbing and liberating heat. It is good to note that the specific heat of water is higher than that of land. Hence, water requires more heat than land does to increase its temperature at the same number of degrees. ater, having a higher specific heat, warms up more slowly than land. On the other hand, water also cools off more slowly than land because it retains its heat longer.
The unequal heating of water and land is also due to some of the insolation falling on water that is used in the evaporation process. Obviously, that heat does not warm the water. There is no effect on land, because there is less evaporation of water takes place from land surfaces.
The sun's heat is being trapped by the atmosphere. This…
Daintith, John (2005). Oxford Dictionary of Physics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280628-9.
Heat. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 April 2008, from Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat.Lastmodified 21 April 2008.
' That set point can shift, depending upon environmental influences. For example, if someone is infected, a fever can actually help his or her body survive the disease, as certain kinds of bacteria grow less vigorously at high temperatures. Cytokines attacking the intruders send signals to the hypothalamus to release prostaglandins to 'give' the person a fever. Even if the person moves to a cold room, the fever will persist, and the body will work harder to maintain its high temperature (Kalat, 2008, p.294).
Newborn animals such as rabbits will often instinctively move to a warmer place if infected, as their bodies are too immature to demonstrate the involuntary response of a fever. Temperature modification is based upon involuntary biological mechanisms but also instinctual behavioral changes that have other evolutionary sources. Some of our involuntary and voluntary human mechanisms include shivering, huddling together with other warm creatures, moving towards the…
Kalat, James W. (2008). Biological psychology. 10th Edition. Wadsworth.
The Temperature in my Hometown: Data
For example, Clifton Heights, Pennsylvania, showed a great variety in temperature over the course of August 2005. The actual high temperature in degrees Fahrenheit was 97, and the low 63. The normal highs and lows in the month of August in Clifton heights are 88 and 66. This fluctuation means that on very hot days, stores would find it difficult to cool their interiors in a cost-efficient fashion, yet consumers werespending more to cool their homes, and thus had less disposable income to spend during August. Also, hot days, psychologically, consumers may be less apt to shop for the traditional August bread and butter retail goods of school clothes and supplies, as it still seems like it is summer. A bad hurricane season and the high price of oil further cuts into consumer's ability to buy during a month with high utlity bills. Stores…
Clifton Heights, PA: Last Month's Weather." (2 Sept 2005) Accuweather.com. Retrieved 2 Sept 2005 http://wwwa.accuweather.com/forecast-climo.asp?partner=accuweather&myadc=0&traveler=1&zipcode=19018&metric=0
National Weather Overview." (2 Sept 2005) Accuweather.com Blog. Retrieved 2 Sept 2005. http://wwwa.accuweather.com/index.asp?partner=accuweather&myadc=0&traveler=1
Schuman, Evan. (24 Dec 2004) "Weathering Storms for Retail Profits." Retrieved 2 Sept 2005 http://www.evanschuman.com/clips/eweek-29dec04-2.html
Heat, Temperature, And Kinetic Theory
The summer sun can make it seem easy to understand the concepts of heat and temperature, at least in a visceral sense, but understanding what these concepts mean and how they interact in the more objective and codified world of physics is another matter entirely. For this, it is necessary first to begin to be far more careful when using the two terms, which are far from interchangeable when used in their strictest sense, as well as to develop an understanding of some of the basic and fundamental features of the physical world as it exists and as it is experienced. The following pages present a brief description and discussion of heat and temperature, and the physical/scientific contexts in which they can be properly understood. Armed with this understanding, one can talk about the temperature with much greater authority and with much greater interest than…
DeLeon, N. (n.d.). Specific heat and heat capacity. Accessed 22 July 2012. http://www.iun.edu/~cpanhd/C101webnotes/matter-and-energy/specificheat.html
IPAC. (n.d.). Heat vs. temperature. Accessed 22 July 2012. http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Heat and Temperature
Although there is a difference between heat and temperature, the correlation which exists between them is very significant (Campbell, 2009). Temperature is the degree of vibration of particles in a system. High temperature therefore implies a high degree of vibration of particles. Heat is a type of energy which is usually changed into kinetic energy. As long as an object is heated, its temperature will increase. While heat is a form of energy, temperature is the effect of heat (Campbell, 2009). Intrinsically, the relationship between heat and the temperature is associated with change in the state, from solid to liquid and then gas.
Convection and conduction
Convection as a process involves the transfer of heat is from one region to another by actual motion of matter (Convection, 2013). Therefore, convection is only possible in fluids. In convection, temperature differences in the fluids drive currents. When fluids are…
Campbell, B.J. (2009). Heat. The Midwest Quarterly, 50(2), 166-118. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/804213878?accountid=35812
Convection. (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/135577/convection
T, L.T.G. (2011). Mantle convection for geologists. Choice, 49(3), 537-538. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/904158126?accountid=35812
temperature and answer questions about this force.
Temperature and heat are two different issues. Temperature is how cold or hot air, water or an object is. Heat is the energy which is produced when molecules and atoms are in motion.
The amount of energy an object may hold is determined by its shape and size.
The main difference between the Kelvin and Celsius scale is Kelvin is used mainly by scientists, while Celsius is more commonly used in everyday life. The areas the two scales have in common are both are measurements of temperatures, and the "Celsius scale is defined using Kelvin scale (mathforum.org/discuss/sci.math/m/183781/183783)."
Temperatures from 1925 and 2003 should not be compared due to urbanization's influence on readings, the greenhouse effect which has increased the earth's temperature and thermometers which are more sensitive and accurate.
A comparison of the New York's average temperatures for specific months is as follows:…
(Average Weather Conditions for New York City. (accessed 15 February 2005).
(Climate in Los Angeles. (accessed 15 February 2005).
S. In particular), and Kelvin (generally used by scientists and engineers).
Temperature is virtually the measure of the average thermal energy (heat) of the atoms and molecules in a body. The masses are often inclined to believe that there is no difference between heat and temperature. This is most probably because individuals have observed how heat can influence an object's temperature. When a substance is given more heat, it comes to have a higher temperature, thus concluding that more heat means more temperature.
Even though temperature is related to energy, it cannot be considered as being energy. Temperature is simply a number determined by the average kinetic energy of particles in a body.
Temperature is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance, thus meaning that it is not energy. While temperature can be measured in Kelvin, Celsius, and Fahrenheit, heat can be measured in…
Lenzen, Victor F. The Nature of Physical Theory: A Study in Theory of Knowledge (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1931)
Smil, Vaclav, Energy in World History (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994)
"Heat and Temperature." Retrieved October 31, 2010, from the Cool Cosmos Web site: http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Therefore, for sportspersons who are involved in intense physical activity in the outdoors, all other forms of core body temperature measurements besides the rectal and gastrointestinal measurements are considered invalid and not recommendable. [Casa et.al, 2007]
As with any other drug or diagnostic tools, there are some contraindications for the 'Heat Pill' as well. The existence of gastrointestinal disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome or a previous history of gastrointestinal surgery are cases where the use of the heat pill is not recommended. The Core temp Pill is also contraindicated in case of those who have implanted cardiac pacemakers or any other electro medical device in their body. Also, if the subject is going to have a MRI taken during the day then the Core Temp Pill should not be ingested, as it would interfere with the MRI results. Also in some extremely obese individuals, the patient's girth may effectively exceed…
1) Jon Krawczynski, (2005),' NFL Teams to use Pill to Monitor Body Temperature', Accessed Feb 21st 2010, Updated 8/15/2005, available at, http://www.usatoday.com/sports/football/nfl/2005-08-15-pill-heat-nfl_x.htm
2) Abigail Funk, (2008), 'Heat Illness Study Roundup', Accessed Feb 21st 2010, Available at, http://www.training-conditioning.com/2008/08/study_roundup_heat_illness_1.html
3) Dan Peterson, (2009),' Heat Stroke Deaths in Football 'All Preventable', Accessed Feb 21st 2010, Available at, http://www.livescience.com/health/090202-sports-heat-stroke.html
4) NASA, (2006), 'Ingestible Thermometer Pill aids Athletes in Beating the Heat', Accessed Feb 21st 2010, Available at, http://ipp.gsfc.nasa.gov/TOP-SS-Ing-Thermom.html
Tubes 1 through 4 were placed one at a time in water baths at varying temperatures -- 20, 45, 50, and 70 degrees Celsius. Beet samples were soaked in the water baths for a period of one minute, and were then returned to their test tubes that were then filled with 10mL of distilled water, in which they soaked for twenty minutes. All six beet samples were then examined for the depth of their color using a comparative scale. The absorbance of light of each sample after treatment was also measured and recorded.
The samples that had been exposed to the highest and the lowest temperatures showed the greatest depth of color and higher rates of absorbance, suggesting that cell membranes in these samples had ruptured and released the betacyanin that gives the common beet its distinctive red shade and helped make these samples more opaque. Samples 1 and…
Bochu W, Hucheng Z, Yiyao L, Yi J, Sakanishi A. 2000. The effects of alternative stress on the cell membrane deformability of chrysanthemum callus cells. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biounterfaces 20(4):321-325.
Lund BM, Baird-Parker TC, Gould GW. 2000. The microbiological safety and quality of food, Volume 2. Gaithersburg (MD): Aspen, pp. 103-105.
Toner M, Cravalho EG, Karel M. 2009. Thermodynamics and kinetics of intracellular ice formation during freezing of biological cells. Jour App Phys 67(3):1582-1593.
At functioning temperatures higher than 1000°C, the most imperative heat-transfer instrument becomes emission instead of conduction and convection, which are the more noteworthy heat-transfer devices at lower temperatures. The outsized pores in the cement IFB are wasteful at decreasing energy reassignment at the infrared wavelengths concerned, so this kind of IFB shows a superior thermal conductivity in comparison with the cast. On the other hand, the microporous arrangement of the cast IFB, with its minute (Southern California Gas Company, 2012) pore sizes, is a lot more efficient at altering with energy transfer at infrared wavelengths, so this category of IFB exhibits low thermal conductivity. This is why the microstructure of the cast IFB gives higher insulation in comparison to the cement IFB.
Improvements and Innovations in the New Kiln
Even though the new tunnel kiln has not been in service long, it is anticipated to considerably reduce Nautica Ceramics' general…
Combustion Technology Manual, Fifth Edition, 2004. Published by Industrial Heating Equipment Association, Cincinnati, OH.
Matson Frederick R.; Ceramics and Man. Aldine Pub. Co. 2009
Trinks W; Mawhinney, Matthew Holmes. Industrial Furnaces. 4th edition,. Wiley, 1967.
Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, U.S. Department of Energy and Industrial Heating Equipment Association. Retrieved on November 26th, 2012 from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/process_heating_sourcebook2.pdf
studied was whether it is better to measure temperature with an oral thermometer or with a tympanic one. It is possible to research the question because prior research has already found that there is a difference between the accuracy of the temperature taken with the two thermometers. The problem is significant because the researchers wanted to find out if the difference between the two methods would help patients out more.
The article in question discusses whether there is any significant difference between taking an oral or tympanic temperature for patients. The actual application was for surgical patients, but can be extrapolated to other patient types. The research question can be easily researched, and it is a needed topic of research. There are no ethical issues with the research question proposed.
The literature review was short, but it did include all of the elements that are necessary for a review. The…
Gilbert, M., Barton, A.J., & Counsell, C.M. (2002). Comparison of oral and tympanic temperatures in adult surgical patients. Applied Nursing Research, 15(1), 42-47.
Temperatures and tempers are soaring in Iraq, and every day the news flashes tell the stories of one, two, three, or more American soldiers who died in combat. hether it was justified or not, the actual war to seize power from Saddam Hussein came and went in a matter of weeks. On a high note, the United States public rallied behind the President and imagined throngs of joyous happy smiling Iraqi men, women, and children. The mews media has cooperated gracefully, and CNN, Fox, NBC, and every other major news network delivers exactly what the hite House wants us to hear: that Iraq is better off with the Americans in control. Granted, Saddam was a dictator. He and his minions grew fat off his nation's main natural resource: petroleum, while most Iraqi citizens lived without some basic human rights and freedoms. Hussein and his regime also systematically persecuted whole ethnic…
Garamone, Jim. "Security Will Set Stage for Iraqi Economic Growth, Bremer Says." DefenseLink. U.S. Department of Defense. 20 June 2003.
Hertzberg, Hendrik. "?
" The New Yorker.
Jiminez, Marina. "Iraq: Going Home." National Post. 27 March 2003.
Temperature on Enzyme Activity
Tube 2, #4: Place the tube in an incubator (or water bath) at 37 degree centigrade. After 15 minutes, what change do you now observe?
After 15 minutes the milk became partially solid.
Tube 3, #4: Add three drops of warmed rennin and return the tube to an incubator (or water bath) at 37 degree centigrade. After 15 minutes, what change do you now observe?
After 15 minutes, the milk remains liquid with no solidifying taking place.
Table 5.1 Rennin Experiment
Tube Results Explanation
Refrigerated rennin - (tube 2) 0 Enzyme not active at low temperature.
Warmed rennin - (tube 1) ++ Enzyme effective at 37c temperature.
Boiled rennin - (tube 3) 0 Enzyme not active at high temperature,
Enzyme denatured at high temperature.
Graph: Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity.
What happens at the active site of an enzyme?
The active site is…
Maxton, F.J.C., Justin, L. & Gillies, D. (2004). Estimating core temperature in infants and children after cardiac surgery: a comparison of six methods. Journal of Advanced Nursing 45(2): 214-22.
What is the research question? If it is not explicitly written, but is implicit in the article, suggest null and alternative hypotheses.
Which temperature-taking site yields the most accurate readings in babies and young children following cardiac surgery? Temperature is usually measured using the pulmonary artery as a "gold standard." However, the authors hypothesize that because the pulmonary artery cannot be used in the majority of the patients in the target population, other methods can and should be used. In addition to pulmonary artery temperature, the temperatures can be taken at the rectal, bladder, nasopharyngeal, axillary, and tympanic sites.
List the variables used in the study and identify each of them as either independent or dependent variables. Also describe the level…
Maxton, F.J.C., Justin, L. & Gillies, D. (2004). Estimating core temperature in infants and children after cardiac surgery: a comparison of six methods. Journal of Advanced Nursing 45(2): 214-22.
How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter?
There is a close relationship between the study of heat and the kinetic theory of matter. It is significant therefore to first understand the principles behind the kinetic theory of matter. This theory seeks to explain the differences that exist between the three different states of matter. It indicates that, matter is made up of particles that are constantly moving known as the atoms or the molecules (Benjamin Crowell, 2009).
The temperature that the object is at will dictate the state that the matter will be at. According to the kinetic theory, solids have their particles tightly bound to each other that even though they can vibrate, they cannot move to another location. Here the particles have very low kinetic energy and the particles of that particular solid are held together by the existing intermolecular forces…
Benjamin Crowell, (2009). Heat is Kinetic Energy. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from http://www.vias.org/physics/bk2_03_02.html
Doug Haag, (2011). What Are the Various Properties of a Substance That Determine Its Heat Capacity? Retrieved January 28, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8458965_various-determine-its-heat-capacity.html
Gavin Sulivan & Campbell Edmondson, (2008). Heat and Temperature. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from http://ceaccp.oxfordjournals.org/content/8/3/104.full.pdf
ITP Nelson, (1997). Sources of Heat. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from http://resources.yesican-science.ca/lpdd/g07/lp/nelson/nel13.html
Wabash Watershed and Global Warming
Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented increase in GHG has induced the warming up of Earth. Since global warming impacts entire biosphere and ecosystems, watersheds are also distorted through warming of climate. The paper defines watersheds, their role in ecosystem, and explanation of changes that have taken place in Wabash watershed. Wabash watershed is composed of smaller watersheds such as Upper Wabash Watershed, Lower Wabash, Little Wabash Watershed, Middle Wabash-Busseron, and Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion Watershed. Human agency has caused the global warming to increase over a period of last two decades, though its signs are obvious much before that. Increases in average lower temperatures, precipitation, and stream runoff are some evident outcomes of global warming. Wildlife, water resources, agriculture, and human health will have an adverse…
EPA. (2013). Midwest Impacts & Adaptation. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved form: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter?
First, the Kinetic theory of matter states that matter is made up of numerous small articles known as the atoms and molecules which are in constant motion. There are some assumptions that are made under this theory, one is that matter is made up of particles that are widely spaced and these particles are in constant motion (on Kurtus, 2011).
This theory also states that these molecules have great kinetic energy and move faster when subjected to higher temperatures. The moving of the particles therefore help in transferring of the heat energy by one molecule that moves fast colliding with one that moves slowly hence transferring some of the heat energy to it and in effect starts to move faster. This is how the kinetic theory of matter and the assumption that the particles are constantly…
Jeff Haby, (2012). The Difference Between
Temperature and Heat. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://www.theweatherprediction.com/habyhints/39/
Michael Fowler, (2008). Early Attempts to Understand the Nature of Heat. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/152.mf1i.spring02/What%20is%20Heat.htm
M.J. Farabee, (2010). Laws of Thermodynamics. Retrieved April 29, 2012 from http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookener1.html
Heat Capacity is defined by obinson and Haas (1983) as the quantity of heat that is required to raise the temperature of a unit quantity of a given substance by one degree Kelvin at a constant pressure.
A brief history of the concept
Prior to the development of the modern theories of thermodynamics, it was widely thought that heat was some form of a fluid called calorific (Cengel, 2007).Different bodies were capable of effectively holding a certain quantity of this fluid and their ability to hold such a fluid was referred to as heat capacity as was initially investigated by one Joseph Black in 1750s (Laider,1993).In this age and time, we discuss the concept of the internal energy system. This comprises of microscopic kinetic as well as potential energy. Heat too is never considered as a fluid but is regarded as a transfer of energy which is disordered at a…
Cengel, Y.A (2007). Introduction To Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer.MacGraw Hill
Laider, K.J. (1993). The World of Physical Chemistry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-855919-4.
Roninson, G, R and Hass, J.L (1983)Heat capacity, relative enthalpy, and calorimetric entropy of silicate minerals: an empirical method of prediction. American Mineralogist, Volume 68, pages 541-553, 1983
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic esonance Devices
Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today. As the term implies, magnets, specifically high field magnets, are an essential part of these sophisticated devices with important implications for a wide range of valuable healthcare and research applications. To gain additional insights into how these devices operate, this paper provides a discussion concerning the standard construction of modern high field magnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance devices, including a detailed graphic illustrated the different components of a representative magnet. An examination of the effects of transitions to higher magnet strengths on cooling systems is followed by an analysis of the superconducting materials used and a brief description of magnet construction. A discussion concerning the differences between shielded magnets and non-shielded magnets and innovations in technology that may allow room…
Carlisle, R. (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries: All the Milestones in Ingenuity -- From the Discovery of Fire to the Invention of the Microwave Oven. Hoboken,
NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Depalma, A. (2003, August 25). 'Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics.' The Scientist, vol. 17, no.
16, pp. 44-47.
Changes (Global, National, Region, Local, and Farm)
In the work entitled: "Climate Change and Agriculture" a brochure prepared for the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food written by Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. In Section 4: Impact of Climate Change on Crops report findings that:
1) Elevated temperature increased their rate of grain growth but shortened the duration of grain filling;
2) Higher temperatures may have decreased the availability of assimilates so decreasing grain size, grain yield and mass per grain; and 3) Higher temperatures reduced average mass per grain, in one experiment, by 25% in normal CO2 and 14% in elevated conditions." (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. nd)
The following chart demonstrates the effect that CO2, temperature, and CO2 combined with a higher temperature had on crop yields in this study.
Change in yield (%)
Source: (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, 2006)
Chipanshi, a., Chanda, R., & Totolo, O. (Dec 2003). Vulnerability assessment of the maize and sorghum crops to climate change in Botswana. Climatic Change, 61(3).
Dhakwa, G. & Campbell, L. (Dec 1998). Potential effects of differential day-night warming in global climate change on crop production. Climatic Change, 40(3).
Isik, M. & Devadoss, S. (20 April 2006). An analysis of the impact of climate change on crop yields and yield variability. Applied Economics, 38(7).
Peng, S., Huang, J., Sheehy, J., Laza, R., Visperas, R., Zhong, X., Centeneo, G., Khush, G., & Cassman, K. (6 July 2004). Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(27).
Often an entire structural reassessment may be need to reach optimal temperature control for the workplace, To improve temperature control, insulation may be required to keep hot and cold air in and keep the outside temperature and humidity from affecting the workers inside. Air-conditioning is the solution of most workplaces to long, hot summers, but having windows that open can cut down on air-conditioning costs and enable workers to still work even when the temperature control system has been shut down. Having blinds to shield the light from hot windows, minimizing exposure to direct sunlight in general and providing ample water and cooling beverages can also help. If no internal cooling systems are available, allowing employees to take breaks or even to work different shifts (such as avoiding the hotter times of the day) can be valuable (Thermal comfort for office work, 2014, CCOHS). This may be necessary in outdoor…
Employers guide. (2014). HSE. Available:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/temperature/thermal/managers.htm [3 May 2014]
Martinez, I. (2014). Human thermal comfort. Available:
http://webserver.dmt.upm.es/~isidoro/Env/Human%20thermal%20comfort.pdf [3 May 2014]
(Wolverine Tube Heat Transfer Data ook, 2009)
asic components of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers include the following basic components although there is a plethora of existing specific features used in design of the Shell and Heat Tube Exchanger. The components specifically are:
(1) Tubes -- "...the basic component of the shell and tube exchanger, providing the heat transfer surface between one fluid flowing inside the tube and the other fluid flowing across the outside of the tubes. The tubes may be seamless or welded and most commonly made of copper or steel alloys. Other alloys of nickel, titanium, or aluminum may also be required for specific applications. The tubes may be either bare or with extended or enhanced surfaces on the outside." (Wolverine Tube Heat Transfer Data ook. 2009) Corrugated tubes have been more recently developed and is stated to have heat transfer enhancement both inside and out as…
Double pass http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5203405.html
ASME Boilers and Pressure Vessels Code, Section VIII, Pressure Vessels, Division 1, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Parts UG-125 to 136, Pressure Relief Devices. Online available at: http://www.asme.org/catalog/
Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (nd) Online available at: http://www.tema.org/
API STD 661, Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers for General Refinery Service (nd) Online available at: http://www.cssinfo.com/apigate.html
Different Fuel Cell Technologies
U.S Department of Energy (2010) provides the description of different fuel cell technologies. The fuel cell technologies are differentiated according to their efficiency, operating temperatures, costs and application. The classifications are based on 6 major groups:
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC),
Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC),
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC),
Molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC),
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC);
Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC).
Alkaline fuel cell (AFC)
The AFC generates electrical power using alkaline electrolyte KOH (potassium hydroxide) in water-based solution. The presence of hydroxyl ions within the electrolyte allows a circuit to extract electric energy. The illustration in Fig 2 reveals an alkaline fuel cell. As being revealed in Fig 2, two hydrogen gas molecules combines with 4 hydroxyl ions have a negative charge to release 4 electrons and 4 water molecules. The equation 4 reveals the reaction of oxidation that takes…
Andujar, J.M, Segura F. (2009). Fuel cells: history and updating. A walk along two centuries.
Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 13:2309 -- 22.
Grove, W.R. (1842). On a Gaseous Voltaic Battery. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science .vol. XXI: 417 -- 420.
Kordesch, K.(1999). Alkaline fuel cells applications, innovative energy technology. Austria: Institute of High Voltage Engineering, U Graz.
For the temperature portion of the investigation (conducted first), eight test tubes were placed in four temperature controlled water baths ranging from water and crushed ice (2( C) to near boiling (98(). The other baths were kept at room temperature (23( C) and an intermediary between this and boiling (75( C). Test tubes were left in the baths for ten minutes, until their temperatures at equalized. Starting with the coldest bath, the amylase mixture was poured into the starch solution and briefly stirred. Leaving the test tube in the bath, a single drop was removed every ten seconds using a plastic pipette and placed into a well containing the iodine solution. When the color remained orange, the reaction had been completed, and the time (i.e. length of reaction) was noted. This same process was repeated with the other three sets of test tubes at the other temperatures, washing and replacing…
Allsands. (2007). "Amylase Enzyme: The Effects Of Temperature." Accessed 11 May 2009. http://www.allsands.com/science/amylaseenzymeh_wpp_gn.htm
Nuffiled. (2009). "Investigating the effect of pH on amylase activity." Accessed 11 May 2009. http://www.practicalbiology.org/areas/intermediate/bio-molecules/factors-affecting-enzyme-activity/investigating-the-effect-of-ph-on-amylase-activity,51,EXP.html
Worthington. (2009). "Introduction to enzymes." Accessed 11 May 2009. http://www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/lifeProcesses.html
ability of plants to respond to environmental factors such as soil temperatures. This paper examines the effects of arti-cially warmed environment using open-top chambers (OTCs). It investigates the effect of temperature changes on the growth of Dryas integrifolia. This is in light of the growing concern of the changing climatic weather condition more so in the cold climatic regions of the world. It hypothesizes the difference in growth of Dryas integrifolia exposed to OTC- treatment as compared to those in natural setting.
This study reveals that there is statistically significant difference in growth of Dryas integrifolia exposed to OTC- treatment as compared to those in natural setting. It gives a new view of the possibility that future change of climate might as well not be detrimental to the growth of natural vegetation in the arctic regions
It is a scientific fact that plant development is subjected to environmental factors.…
Callaghan TV, Bjo rn LO, Chapin FS III et al. (2005). Arctic tundra and polar desert ecosystems. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment: Scienti-c Report, 243 -- 352.
CYSIP: Botany. (2012). Dryas integrifolia: Entire-leaf Mounta. Retrieved November 27, 2012, from http://www.flora.dempstercountry.org/index.html
Fenner, M. (1998). The phenology of growth and reproduction in plants. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, Vol. 1 No. 1, 78-91.
Forchhammer, M.C., Rasch, M., & Rysgaard, S. (n.d.). A Conceptual Framework for Monitoring Climate Effects and Feedback in Arctic Ecosystems.
The term "hockey stick" was given to this controversy by Jerry Mahlman, a climatologist who described a patter that is relatively flat to 1900 (the shaft) and then a sharp increase after 1900 that corresponds to the blade (see above) (Climate Legacy, 2004). This graph has been the key piece of evidence in views supported by the United Nations and IPCC regarding greenhouse gas emissions and environmental change.
Arguments against using the Hockey Stick as the only answer to climate claim that it is taken out of context when it comes to global climatic time. In addition, graphing the last 150 years causes, what some scientists say, is noisy data in which relatively minor changes appear to be over exaggerated because of the template of the graph. This, called small-amplitude variations, may be true from an empirical sense, but have little meaning statistically when dealing with macro-science like climate (Von…
REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. (2007). IPCC. Cited in:
Climate Legacy of 'Hockey Stick..' (2004). BBC News. Cited in:
Nature of Heat
The nature of heat -- where it comes from, what it is made of, how it moves -- has been a source of fascination to philosophers and scientists since the earliest civilizations. The Ancient Greeks connected heat to their early atomic theory. Natural philosophers and chemists during the Enlightenment in Europe considered heat to be its own substance known as 'caloric.' It was not until the 19th century that physicists connected heat to the emerging theories of energy. In the 1840s, James Joule discovered that the appearance and disappearance of heat was always accompanied by the appearance and disappearance of kinetic energy (Tippler, 1999). It soon was confirmed that heat is not in fact its own substance but is a form of energy.
The study of heat as a form of energy, known as thermodynamics, is closely tied to the kinetic theory of matter. The kinetic…
Guha, E. (2000) Basic Thermodynamics. London: Alpha Science International.
Hermans-Killam, L. And Daou, D. (2011) Heat and temperature. Caltech Cosmic Classroom. Retrieved from http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu / cosmic_classroom/light_lessons/thermal/index.html
Jha, D.K. (2004). Textbook of Heat. New Dehli: Discovery Publishing House.
Zobel, E.A. (2010) Heat and Temperature. Zona Land Education. Retrieved from http://zonalandeducation.com/mstm/physics/mechanics/energy/heatAndTemperature/heatAndTemperature.html
This distribution can be applied to multiple business situations even where data is distributed differently, because a normal distribution adopts the central limit theorem which suggests that no matter how a population is distributed, the distribution "of the means of random samples approaches a normal distribution for a large sample size" (ICMBA, 2002).
Business executives can use normal business distribution to create diversified asset portfolios, to calculate process variations within operations and even in human resources management to evaluate employee performance that is often considered normally distributed (ICMBA, 2002). Businesses benefits because normal distribution allows description of variables that would otherwise be considered random, and also allows a rough estimate of the actual distribution (ICMBA, 2002). Errors that usually arise using a bell curve are also often negligible and hence considered acceptable (ICMBA, 2002) thus executives can use normal distribution to solve problems with a high degree of accuracy in…
Arsham, H. (1994). "Statistical thinking for managerial decisions." January 1994,
National Science Foundation. 1, October 2005: http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/Business-stat/opre504.htm
History for Dayton, Ohio February Temperatures." Weather Underground. Available:
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…
Johansen, B. (2002). The Global Warming Desk Reference. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Uzawa, H. (2003). Economic Theory and Global Warming. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Press.
Weart, S. (2003). The Discovery of Global Warming. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press.
Harris, P. (2003). Global Warming and East Asia. New York: Routledge.
An object's heat capacity is the product of its precise heat capacity, which is the quantity of heat necessary to raise 1 kg of the material one degree, and it's mass in kg. Heat capacity is a widespread property of a matter. In other words its worth varies depending on how much matter is present (Jorgensen, 2011).
What are the various sources of heat?
The sun is an element of the solar system. Therefore, it is a natural source of heat energy. Sunlight is significant for the survival of all living things. This type of heat energy is also known as solar energy.
The heat energy that is obtained from the Earth is known as geothermal energy. Sustainable and unsoiled geothermal energy can be obtained from the hot water and rocks that are located in the shallow ground. It is also located in the molten rocks obtainable in the farthest…
Charmaine, Mike. (2010). What Are the Sources of Heat Energy? Retrieved January 27, 2011,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/list_6038161_sources-heat-energy_.html
Heat. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2011, from Web site: http://hyperphysics.phy-
They eat on ice and they give birth on ice. So if ice will disappear for a significant part of the year, these animals will be lost. The number of polar bears has already started to decrease and that is due to global warming. Scientists believe that although polar bears are great swimmers and they can swim for long distances, they drown because the number of ice sheets is becoming lower and lower.
Another arctic animal that is affected by the global warming is the walrus. Scientists discovered in summer of 2004, in the Canada Basin, a number of lonely walrus caves. They were swimming alone, far away from shore. Until then, scientists did not see walrus calves swim so far away from the shore in the summer. But because of the ice melting and the warmer temperature they need to look for food far away and let their pups…
1. Adam, David, Ocean warming threatens Antarctic wildlife, October 19, 2005, Retrieved December 5th, 2012, from the Guardian website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2005/oct/19/frontpagenews.climatechange
2. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Impacts of a Warming Arctic -- Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Cambridge University Press, December 13, 2004
3. Baker, Stuart, in the Artic, Marshall Cavendish, September 1, 2009
4. Effects on Wildlife and Habitat, Retrieved December 5th, 2012, from the National Wildlife Federation website: http://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Threats-to-Wildlife/Global-Warming/Effects-on-Wildlife-and-Habitat.aspx
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…
Healy, J. Kevin and Tapick, Jeffrey M. (2004). "Climate change: It's not just a policy issue for corporate counsel -- It's a legal problem," 29 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 89, 96.
S. Department of State). Since them the severity and frequency of bleaching events continues to increase. These bleaching events correlate with rising average sea temperatures on a global basis, rising sea levels, and more frequent tropical storms fueled by increasingly stronger heat masses (U.S. Department of State).
In addition to coral reef bleaching, the geographic ranges of many plants and animals are shifting. Plant and animal ranges are generally limited by climatic factors, with animals able to respond to climate changes faster than plants due to increased mobility (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). ecently, changes have been noticed in the ranges of several species. Those that cannot adapt to the new climate will quickly become extinct. Currently, nearly 20-30% of all plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct in the near future, with many of these extinctions related to climate change (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). However, climate change…
Begley, S. The Truth About Denial. Newsweek. August 13, 2007.
< http://www.newsweek.com/id/32482 > Accessed June 1, 2009.
Canadell, J., Le Quere, C., and Raupach, M., et al. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric
CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sink.
Collision Model: Explanation and Application
The Collision Model is the theory that chemical reactions are the result of collisions between molecules. These molecular collisions must be strong enough to break bonds in the reacting substances. Breaking the bonds result in a rearrangement of the original configuration of atoms and a new product or products is formed ("Collision Model," Answer Corporation, 2006). Not every collision between molecules will create new products. In fact, the vast majority of collisions do not because they are not strong enough to break the existing bonds, which are often quite strong between molecules. For the collision to be successful, the molecules have to be oriented in such a way that the activation energy is sufficient to generate a reaction in the substance in question. Temperature, the presence of catalysts, the concentration of the substance, and other factors affect activation energy. Also, the molecules within molecular bonds…
Akeson, Wayne H. "Application of the Arrhenius Equation to rat tail tendon collagen."
Nature. 199, 185-186. 13 July 1963. 1 Oct 2008. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v199/n4889/abs/199185a0.html
The Arrhenius Equation." IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology. 2nd Edition. 1997.
Oct 2008. http://www.iupac.org/goldbook/A00446.pdf
"Over the past century, human activities have released large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The majority of greenhouse gases come from burning fossil fuels to produce energy, although deforestation, industrial processes, and some agricultural practices also emit gases into the atmosphere" (EPA). These greenhouse gases play a critical role in global warming; they trap energy in the atmosphere, acting like a blanket around the Earth. From what is known about Earth's atmosphere at prior points in history, when these greenhouse gases were more abundant in the atmosphere from natural sources, there is no real argument that greenhouse gases do not trap heat. Moreover, science can prove that human activities produce those same greenhouse gases. However, the argument that climate change deniers make is that human activities are contributing only a nominal amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and, therefore, that human activity cannot…
Cook, John. "Is There a Scientific Consensus on Global Warming?" Skeptical Science. N.p.
2012. Web. 26 Nov. 2012.
Cook, John. "What Evidence Is There for the Hockey Stick?" Skeptical Science. N.p. 2012.
Web. 26 Nov. 2012.
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…
Author not Available. "About the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." IPCC.ch. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.ipcc.ch/about/index.htm
Editors. "Climate Change." EPA.gov. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
It is however worth noting that the effects of the contrails on the climatic conditions and the weather in general is negligible as compared to the greenhouse gasses constantly emitted from the various industries into the atmosphere. The effect of the contrails almost doesn't count since it clears off faster, indeed within hours and if the stay is prolonged then it cannot go beyond a few days, yet the industrially emitted greenhouse gases can take years to clear off and the effect on the weather pattern is very adverse.
Having seen the various ways through which the contrails can affect the climatic conditions, and the foreseeable effect that they may pose to the climatic conditions in the next few years to places that host many planes, there are suggestions that the plane industries should think of venturing into the manufacture of engines whose by product of the combustion is not…
Dictionary.com LLC, (2011). Contrail definition. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/contrail
John Timmer (2011). Contrails impact climate more than planes' carbon emissions. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://arstechnica.com/science/news/2011/03/contrails-impact-climate-more-than-planes-carbon-emissions.ars
Peter Tyson, (2006). The Contrail Effect. Retrieved May 13, 2011 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/contrail-effect.html
Wynne Parry, (2011). Earth Warmed by Trails of Clouds that Jets Leave Behind. Retrieved May
Size and Temperature on Diffusion
In this experiment is expected that after 30 minutes, the diameter of the diffused dye ring will increase in size when placed at 37°C.
Janus Green at room temperature
Janus Green at 37°C
Potassium Permanganate at room temperature
Potassium Permanganate at 37°C
Measurement of diffusion of Janus Green and Potassium Permanganate at different temperatures.
Consistent with the expectations, potassium permanganate molecules spread further, 1.0 cm at room temperature and 1.1 at 37°C. This was longer compared to those of Janus Green that spread 0.3 cm at room temperature and 0.5cm at 37°C. It is evident that both molecules spread further at 37°C than at room temperature.
Effect of solute concentration on osmosis
Bag Contents (10ml)
Beaker Contents (200ml)
Total Mass Change
10% sucrose dH2O
Stoker, Stephen. General, Organic, And Biological Chemistry. Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2010.
Challenger Launch Decision
JOE KILMINSTE'S ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE CHALLENGE DISASTE
On January 28, 1986, the Challenger, one of the reusable space shuttle by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA, was launched off at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida but exploded 72 seconds after liftoff. The launch was approved and ordered by the management of the Morton Thiokol, Inc., an aerospace company, that manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for big clients, including the NASA, and per NASA's urging despite the objection of Morton Thiokol's engineers that the 30-degree F. temperature was inclement to the shuttle's boosters. The launch was a publicized event as NASA's 25th mission and had a selected teacher, Christa McAulifee and six astronauts on board. All these passengers perished (Jennings 1996).
The launch was repeatedly postponed because the engineers of Thiokol notes the failure of an O. ring assembly in the…
Benner, L. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision by Diane Vaughan. Book Review, International Society of Air Safety Investigators: ISASI Forum. http://www.ipri.org/Reviews/Vaughan.html
Jennings, MM. (1996). Summary of the "Challenger" Episode. Case Studies in Business Ethics, second edition. West Publishing. http://www.calbaptist.edu/dskubik/nasa.htm
Stubley, G. (1998). Engineers and Integrity. The Objectivist Center. http://www.ios.org/tex/gstubley_engineers-integrity.asp
Vaughan, D. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture and Deviance at NASA.. Paperback. University of Chicago Press.
Using this data set we can calculate mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for this data set over last 20 years:
Mean can be found according to the following formula:
So mean February temperature equals to 33.825 F
Median of the data is the middle score after data has been set in order, so February temperature median equals to 33.7 F
Mode of the data is the value from data set which occurs most often. The mode of temperature sat data is 32.9 F
Standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data set values. It can be calculated by the following formula:
Standard deviation of temperature data set for February equals to 3,823181 F. The value of standard deviation witnesses that winter climate in New Jersey is very moderate without any considerable temperature jumps. et, we can mark that there is a current warming trend as the difference…
February averages for Trenton, NJ (1988-2007)
Sustainable Energy for Low Carbon House in Grand Parade righton
The focus of this study is the energy profile of a house identical to the house constructed in Grand Parade righton which is an energy efficient house constructed from waste materials. The climate will be considered as well as the standards and best practices in the construction industry.
righton is reported to have an Oceanic climate much as does the majority of southern ritain with the summer months affected by sea breezes lowering the temperature by five degrees as compared to inland. Snow is common in the winter in righton. The following table shows the monthly average high temperature in righton throughout the year.
Monthly Average High Temperature in righton
]Climate data for righton
Average high "C ("F)
An Introductory Guide to Best Practice in Construction (2012) Construction Excellence in the Southeast. Retrieved from: http://www.secbe.org.uk/documents/introductory_best_practice_guide.pdf
What is BREEAM? (2012) BREEAM. Retrieved from: http://www.breeam.org/about.jsp?id=66
Code for a Sustainable Environment (2012) BREEAM. Retrieved from: http://www.breeam.org/page.jsp?id=347
Sustainability and BREEAM (2012) BREEAM. Retrieved from: http://www.bre.co.uk/page.jsp?id=1766
Tomorrow was an excellent film that definitely fuels interest in climate change. The film is an action packed portrayal of how climate change could potentially cause extreme weather events, though the scientific basis for the events shown in the movie are extremely exaggerated. The abrupt climate change that is shown is has no real basis in the current literature, however it does provide an entertaining and thought provoking view of some of the consequences of anthropogenic influences on the Earth's natural systems.
I had mixed emotions about the dramatizations about climate change. On one hand, it definitely makes the viewer wonder if such occurrences are even remotely possible. The way that the director presents the viewer the perception of real science that is taken place can lead the viewer to do their own investigations to verify if the science behind the movie is true. However, if they do this then…
Moreover, the mean temperature of the planet earth shall only change once there is an inequality between the rates of energy added and energy lost. What this implies is that any substance which can alter the rates of flow of energy may cause the warming of the earth or the cooling of the world.
As far as man-made global warming is concerned, the additional carbon dioxide in the air is known to decrease the rate as which planet earth cools to the exterior space. This readily happens in nature during the greenhouse effect of the atmospheric system. The greenhouse effect is a natural process in which water vapor, clouds, carbon dioxide and methane serve as a radiative blanket. Therefore, the lower atmosphere of the earth and the surface are lagged. Consequently, the earths mean surface temperature is escalated by approximately thirty three degrees celsius. Likewise, the globe's natural greenhouse effect…
Roy, Spencer W.
Models is Wrong.31 May 2009. 24 May 2010.
Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the study's conclusion.
Frey, S.T., Moomaw, W.R., Halstead, J.A., & Robinson, C.W. 2003). Home Energy
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State, Molecular, Chemical, Metal and Vacuum Physics,
Biophysics, and Related Subjects General, Nuclear, Solid State, Molecular, Chemical,
Metal and Vacuum Physics, Astronomy, Geophysics, Biophysics,
and Related Subjects
Vol. 2). New York: Pergamon Press.
(Vol. 2). New York: Pergamon Press.
Tucker, P. (2006, November/December). Building a More-Temperate World: New Materials
That Regulate Their Own Temperature Could Cut Energy Costs. The Futurist, 40, 11.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…
Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.
Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.
Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.
Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
10) the locations of oceans and seas, which are determined by the movement of continental plates, affect the ability for ocean waters to circulate heat around the Earth, and thus can have a major effect on the climate of the planet.
11) Jet streams can have abundant influence on ground-level weather by creating low-pressure centers that can lead to storms, and the streams can continue to steer these storms once they are formed
12) Thunderstorms and tornadoes are more likely to occur in the mid-afternoon because they come as the result of heated air that then rises in a column and the rapidly cools; the initial heating is more likely to reach adequate levels for causing a storm during the later afternoon.
5) Oxygen isotopes found in rocks can vary greatly as they are subjected to different temperatures, with hotter temperatures creating "overwriting" of isotopes left by cooler…
And yes, the ME stated that the 120 pound Mrs. Montrose's core body temperature was 96.1 degrees Fahrenheit and in a 78 degree room that puts the time of death at least 3 to 4 hours earlier.
"There you see," said Mr. Montrose triumphantly, "I couldn't have done it."
"Well, I am afraid you did do it," Tom slams the photo of Mrs. Montrose's back on the table with the checkerboard pattern on it, "and this proves it. And if you hadn't been so lazy as to make the burglars point of entry over the freezer in your basement I would never have looked in it. You see, after you strangled your wife you place her body in the freezer for and hour, that hour you said you were stuck in traffic. I checked that as well. Between midnight and 2 am the highway was clear. I had the uniform…
Bell, R.L. & Garofalo, J. (Eds.). (2005). Science Units for Grades 9-12. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education.
Sachs, J.S. (2001). Corpse: Nature, Forensics, and the Struggle to Pinpoint Time of Death. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Stacy, R.W., Williams, D.T., Worden, R.E., & McMorris, R.O. (1955). Essentials of Biological and Medical Physics. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Table 1 Blue Line = 0? F. Ambient Temperature Red Line = 78? F
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange .
Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm .
Increased agriculture, deforestation, landfills, industrial production, and mining also contribute a significant share of emissions. In 1997, the United States emitted about one-fifth of total global greenhouse gases.
Global average surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century. Of these, 1998 was the warmest year on record. Snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. Globally, sea level has risen 4-8 inches over the past century. Worldwide precipitation over land has increased by about one percent. The frequency of extreme rainfall events has increased throughout much of the United States. Scientists expect that the average global surface temperature could rise 1-4.5°F (0.6-2.5°C) in the next fifty years, and 2.2-10°F (1.4-5.8°C) in the next century. Evaporation will increase as the climate warms, which will…
Environmental Protection Agency http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/Climate.html
National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/globalwarming.html
Dip in Salinity at the Equator
The objective of this study is to examine the possible cause of the dip in salinity around the equator and to answer the question of whether it could be argued that higher temperature causes more evaporation from the ocean surface, which, in turn results in higher salinity content.
Salinity is defined as "the total amount of solid material dissolved in water" and it is reported as well that salinity is generally expressed in terms of percentage. The substances dissolved in seawater are small numbers and are expressed "in parts per thousand." (Lutgen and Tarbuck, 2011) The majority of the salt in seawater is reported as "sodium chloride" or table salt. (Lutgen and Tarbuck, 2011) Seawater salinity is stated at 35%. (Lutgen and Tarbuck, 2011)
Lutgen, F.K., & Tarbuck, E.J. (2011). Foundations of earth science (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. (pg 261-264).
dip" (i.e., decrease) in salinity around the equator? Could it not be argued that higher temperature causes more evaporation from the ocean surface, which, in turn, results in higher salinity content?
This theorem can help:
Higher salinity = higher density
Higher temperature = lower density
Low salinity = lower density
Lower temperature = higher density
alinity is the highest around 20 and 30 degrees. Many of the earth's deserts are located at these temperatures and evaporation of water in these deserts is high leading to high rates of salinity.
One would think that the equator too would have high levels of salinity since the dip of the equator is due to the large amounts of rainfall that happen there.
However, part of the reason for its reduction in salinity is that the dip is larger and more spread out than, let's say the smaller mass of water in the Atlantic…
GS106. Lab Key #3
Fire Suppression Systems
Fire results when fuel, oxidant, and sufficient heat combine in time and place (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The fuel is typically a carbon-based material like paper, wood, oil, or gas, while ambient air typically provides the oxidant in the form of oxygen. Other oxidants include nitrates, chlorates, and peroxides and therefore should never be stored alongside fuel materials. For combustion to occur the heat must sufficient to ignite the fuel. Once ignited the chemical reaction is typically extremely exothermic and becomes self-perpetuating in the presence of fuel and oxidant. If heat accumulates faster than it can be dissipated to the surrounding environment an explosion will occur.
The three ways in which heat can be dissipated is through conduction along a temperature gradient, convection due to movement of the gaseous fire matter, and radiation to other surfaces (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The primary method…
IFSTA (International Fire Service Training Association). (2009). Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement, Seventh Edition. Stillwater, OK: Fire Protection Publications.
Knowlton, B.E. (2012). The effects of using fire-fighting foams: GC-MS pattern analysis of fire debris. (Masters of Science dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. UMI No. 1520731.
Moore, P.E. (1996). Suppressants for the control of industrial explosions. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 9(1), 119-123.
New Zealand Institute of Chemistry. (n.d.). Chemistry in fire fighting. Retrieved from http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/environment/14C.pdf .
A light insulation causes a reduction of 14.5% in the efficiency obtained with full insulation. The wind effect is much more limited. The increase of wind velocity from zero to 3.6 mph yielded a slight reduction (2%) in the still performance.
Repeated tests have shown that the higher the operating temperature of the still, assuming insulation is equal, correlates with higher efficiency. For example, with each 6 degrees Celsius increase in ambient temperature, a still's output increases 7-8%. The application of this finding means that a still operating in a hot desert climate will produce typically as much as one-third more water than the same unit would produce in a cooler climate.
Production of distilled water is also associated with the thermal efficiency of the still itself. Efficiency may range from 30 to 60%, depending on the construction of the still, the amount and type of insulation used, ambient temperatures,…
"The Great Storm reigns today as the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. Between 10,000 and 12,000 people died during the storm...the added toll on commercial structures created a monetary loss of $30 million, about $700 million in today's dollars" (Smith 2003).
A more recent powerful tropical system that affected the Texas coast was that of Hurricane Carla. Carla illustrated how storms are particularly damaging to the low-lying areas of Texas near the Gulf Coast. "Carla's circulation enveloped the entire Gulf of Mexico with fringe effects along all Gulf Coast states," and one-half million residents of the area had to be evacuated to higher ground ("Texas Hurricane History," 2008, USA Today).
Because of its location in the Southeast, Houston is subject to the El Nino effect, the climate changes that occur because of variations in water temperature in the Pacific Ocean. El Nino years tend to have higher levels of…
About our office." (2008). National Weather Service (NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/office.htm
The Great Christmas Eve Snow Storm." (2004) National Weather Service Forecast Office
NWS). Retrieved 12 Aug 2008. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/hgx/projects/xmasevesnow04.htm
Houston." (2008). Environmental Protection agency EPA. Retrieved 12 Aug 2008 at http://www.epa.gov/hiri/pilot/houston.html
"One possible reason," he says, "for this is that most models don't include factors such as irrigation which can influence regional climates," meaning that the increase in large-scale irrigation during the 20th century has not been accounted for in current meteorological models. onfils adds that researchers have found "empirical evidence that irrigation has a large cooling effect on local summer daytime temperatures but minimal effect on nighttime temperatures."
David Lobell, one of the authors of the study issued by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, declares that "If this hypothesis is verified, the acceleration of CO2 emissions combined with a leveling of irrigation may result in a rapid summertime warming in the Central Valley in the near future." Exactly how this complex scenario will work itself out in the near future is not currently known, but as onfils sees it, "The 21st century may be less climatically complex than today" and that…
Human Activities Contribute to California's Global Warming." Science Daily. Internet. January 18, 2008. Retrieved at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080118093350.htm .
"If the victim refuses water, is vomiting, or there are changes in the level of consciousness, they should not be given anything to eat or drink (http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/heat.html#treat)."
Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition which should be treated as quickly as possible. hen Korey Stringer began to exhibit signs and symptoms of heat stroke, such as complaining of being sick during practice and difficult breathing, help should have immediately been called for. He should have been moved to a cool place and measures should have been taken to cool down his body.
By understanding and implementing first aid measures recommended by the American Red Cross, victims have a greater chance of survival with fewer potential side effects.
American Red Cross - Heat ave. (accessed 18 April 2005).
American Red Cross - Heat Wave. (accessed 18 April 2005).
ORIGINALDOCUMENT http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/heat.html#treat ).
arranged in two parts. The first part discusses the Hierarchy theory, and two-factor theory. Since both theories concentrate on the human motivation, the paper compares and contrasts the two theories to reveal their similarities and differences. The second part of this paper concentrates on the heath and safety issues and the paper demonstrates the safety plan to be implemented at the construction site to reduce work accidents.
Hierarchy Theory is a theory of human motivation introduced by Abraham Maslow. The hierarchy theory reveals motivation and personality, and suggests that people are motivated in order to fulfil their basic needs. Maslow Hierarchy theory is often displayed as pyramid where the most basic needs are displayed at the lowest level of the pyramid. On the other hand, the complex needs are displayed at the top level of the pyramid. According to the hierarchy theory, the most basic needs are the…
Herzberg, F., Mausner, B. & Snyderman, B.B. (1959), The Motivation to Work. John Wiley. New York.
Maslow.A.H. (1943).Maslow, A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review 50(4):370-96.
Weiten, W. (2007). Psychology: themes and variations. Cengage Learning, USA.
authoritative in answering my question not only since it originates from a reliable source, but also because it itself is obviously professional and of high quality.
There are numerous markers that indicate this. Firstly the title is concise and to the point stating the question followed by method of inquiry. The Abstract summarizes the article succinctly explaining objective (to investigate whether Paracetamol increases duration of fever and is safe when used with children); Design (a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial) the methodology; esults (with statistical abbreviations); and Conclusion (Paracetamol is effective on all counts).
Professionalism is further shown by a brief introduction that covers the purpose of the research and culminates in the hypothesis: (i) that use of Paracetamol prolongs fever clearance time, and that (ii) rate of decline in temperature with Paracetamol administration imitates that of placebo.
The subjects and method is thoroughly described in a way that…
Breakwell, G., Hammond, S. & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. USA: Sage
Gheri, M et al. (2005). When fever, paracetamol? Theory and practice in a paediatric outpatient clinic, Pharm. World Sci, 27, 254-257
Gupta, H. et al. (2007) Role of paracetamol in treatment of childhood fever: a double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial, Indian Pediatrics, 44, 903-1002
Sullivan, J. & Ferrar, H. (2011). Fever and Antipyretic Use in Children. Pediatrics, 127, 2010-3852
growing demand for functionally superior protein gives us an excellent opportunity for endeavoring to improve the foaming properties of whey protein isolates (WPI) is dairy companies. There are several factors that effect the foaming properties of whey protein isolate. These include the following:
internal elements amino acid composition and sequence other structures inherent to the WPI
hydrophobic / hydrophilic character of the WPI surface the overall charge and the distribution of the charge the flexibility or rigidity of the protein itself
External elements ionic strength ph (i..e level of the acidity or basicity of the solution)
temperature its interaction with other food components
Reviews of attempted improvements of the WPI show that they have been affected by isolation (Ludwig et al., 1995). When Morr and Ha (1993) studied the foaming properties of WPI, he distinguished them into four kinds and found differences . His four kinds were (a) pasteurized acid…
Jambrak AR et al. (2008) Effect of ultrasound treatment on solubility and foaming properties of whey protein suspensions Journal of Food Engineering 86-281 -- 287
Morr, C.V., & Ha, E.Y.W., (1993.) Whey protein concentrates and isolates: processing and functional properties. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 33, 431 -- 476.
Morr, C.V., & Foegeding, E.A., (1990). Composition and functionality of commercial whey and milk protein concentrated and isolates: a status report. Food Technol. 44 (4), 100 -- 112.
Ludwig, I., Krause, W., & Hajos, G., (1995). Functional properties of enzymatically modified milk proteins. Acta Aliment. 24, 289 -- 296.
Abundance and Distributional Variation of Dragonflies in a Forest in Response to Hydrology and Daily Ambient Temperatures.
This research concerns the dragonflies communities found at Kanahawa State Forest, in Charleston, West Virginia. The aim of the research is to determine where - and at what time of day - the dragonflies in this forest are most abundant. To this end, the number of dragonflies occurring at two study sites were recorded, for six weeks, from September 12th to October 31st.
Throughout the study, the following expectations were held: it was expected that the dragonflies would be more abundant in areas with more standing water, and that there would be more occurrences of dragonflies at midday when the temperatures were higher.
The hypotheses to be tested in this study are therefore:
That dragonflies are more abundant (i.e., there are more individuals of each species, and there are also more species) in…
Bechly, G. "Phylogenetic Systematics of Odonata. http://member.tripod.de/GBechly/phyosys.html (10th October 2003).
Dragonflies." [CD-ROM] World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. 1998 ed.
Gerholdt E. James. Dragonflies. Minnesota: Abdo and Daughters, 1996.
Losito, Linda. Damselflies and Dragonflies. New york: The Bookwright Press, 1997.