Airport Security Design and Implementation Term Paper

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Airport Security Design and Implementation

The objective of this work in writing is to devise a plan for setting up a state-of-the-art airport security system. This work will discuss: (1) The security force: selection, organization and training; (2) Airport lay-out: suggest a design which maximizes security management efficiency and passenger flow while minimizing discomfort and delay to air travelers; (3) the screening system step-by-step detailing the process, the equipment used and the function of that equipment; (4) how systems would be integrated for maximum efficiency; and (5) security management of freight air carriers in brief. The design of an airport security plan is complex and inclusive of many considerations to ensure the safety of passengers and employees. The airport security plan serves to increase communication between airport tenants, airport manager and law enforcement as well as serving to identify specific activities to be reported and to increase awareness of airport security issues. The Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990, Public Law 101-604 provided directions to the FAA to work in cooperation with the aviation industry for the purpose of developing guidelines for "…airport design and construction to allow for maximum-security enhancement." (Transportation Security Administration. 2006 ) The Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001 (ATSA), Public Law 107-71 "established the TSA" which is described as an act that "authorizes increased federal responsibility for all aspects of aviation security, including a federal take-over of passenger and baggage screening." (Transportation Security Administration, 2006 ) The responsibilities of TSA were defined further with the 2002 passage of the Homeland Security Act, Public Law 107-296, which effectively resulted in the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. The Department of Homeland Security is charged with the prevention of terrorist attacks in the United States as well as with reduction of the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism at home, and minimization of the damage and provision of assistance in the recovery from any future attacks. It is reported that there are new technological tools available to assist with vulnerability and risk assessment, flow modeling, and bomb blast protection, all of which serve to "reduce guesswork and minimize certain expenditures in new structures." (Transportation Security Administration, 2006 ) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is charged with general planning, design, construction and operations requirement of commercial airport establishment and government under airport certification requirements as set out in 14 CFP 139. (Transportation Security Administration, 2006, paraphrased) Planning for security should be a critical aspect of any airport project. Physical security approaches should be on the basis of "…applicable federal, state, and local regulations and policies to ensure the protection of the general public, airport personnel and assets." (Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

Physical Security

Physical security approaches should, at the very least, include the following: A vulnerability assessment to evaluate the security of an existing airport of a comprehensive security prospectus evaluating a new facility or site; Periodic inspections to ascertain whether a security program and its implementation meet pertinent federal, state, and local standards or regulations; A comprehensive and continuing security and threat awareness and education effort to gain the interest, support and participation of employees, contractors, consultants, and visitors; and Implementation of procedures for taking immediate, positive and orderly action to safeguard life and assets during an emergency. (Transportation Security Administration, 2006) Planning of facility protection should include several elements including that of the general security areas and boundaries. The following diagram shows a general depiction of the various areas of a typical commercial airport including the terminal, aircraft apron, runways or taxiways, as well as other components.

(1) Aircraft Operations Area (AOA) -- the area within an aviation facility in which flight-capable aircraft are present for the purposes of loading or unloading of cargo or passengers, refueling, maintenance, parking, storage, etc. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006)

(2) "Aviation Airport Facility" (AAF) means any DOI owned or controlled real property that has been developed or improved for aircraft (landing and takeoff) at which DOI owned or controlled aircraft are regularly or intermittently based. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006)

(3) Control -- used in two contexts. (a) As it relates to aviation facilities, the term "control" refers to the condition existing when a DOI entity has authority to institute, modify or otherwise effect physical security changes at an aviation facility regardless of property ownership; and (b) As it relates to aircraft, the term "control" shall mean "operational control" as defined in Federal Aviation Regulations Part 1.1: "Operational control with respect to a flight means the exercise of authority over initiating, conducting or terminating a flight." This definition is independent of aircraft ownership. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006)

(4) Dual-lock method -- use of a combination of two locking devices or methods to physically secure or disable a parked aircraft for the purpose of reducing the probability of aircraft theft and associated misuse by unauthorized personnel. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006)

(5) Risk assessment -- refers to the result of a combined. threat and vulnerability assessment. It can generally be characterized as an analysis of the probability of serious impact or damage resulting from a known or postulated threat successfully exploiting one or more vulnerabilities. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006)

(6) "Aircraft Movement Area" - refers to that area where aircraft are maneuvered, taxied and parked for normal operations. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006)

(7) CFR - Code of Federal Regulations (U.S.) (Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

(8) DHS - The Department of Homeland Security (U.S.) and any directorate, bureau, or other component within the Department of Homeland Security, including the United States Coast Guard. (Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

(9) FAA - Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.) (Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

(10) HVAC - Heating, Ventilation and Cooling ((Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

(11) TSA - Transportation Security Administration (U.S.) (Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

(12) 49 CFR - Transportation Security Regulations (Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

(13) Vulnerability - . . . A weakness in physical structures, personnel protection systems, process or other areas that may be exploited by terrorists . . . (Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

(14) Vulnerability Assessment - Any review, audit, or other examination of the security of a transportation infrastructure asset; airport; maritime facility, port area, vessel, aircraft, train, commercial motor vehicle, or pipeline, or a transportation-related automated system or network, to determine its vulnerability to unlawful interference, whether during the conception, planning, design, construction, operation, or decommissioning phase. A vulnerability assessment may include proposed, recommended, or directed actions or countermeasures to address security concerns. (Transportation Security Administration, 2006)

Airport Security Plan

The airport security plan will contain information about "what to report, how/who to report information, new electronic gate, locking aircraft and hangers and contacting FSS prior to each flight. The security plan should be sent to the local law enforcement agency, the local county Sheriff's Department and local Emergency Management (EMA) and the local fire department. There should be a 'Security Information Bulletin Board" available for use by pilots and airport tenants so that the latest security information can be related and disseminated. There also should be a 'Contact List' that identifies personnel and agencies involved in airport security. (Wisconsin Aviation Association, 2007) In order to create awareness of airport security issues the following should be addressed in the security plan: (1) electronic security gate; (2) signs for airport or airspace closure for gate and terminal; (3) barricades for taxiway closures; (4) airport perimeter fence checks; (5) locking hangars/aircraft; (6) locking hangars/aircraft; (7) exterior lighting; (8) airspace closure procedures; and (9) airport closure procedures. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) It is necessary to determine if the airport is public or private use. The following is the 'Airport Characteristics Measurement Tool' (AAF) which can be used to identify the characteristics of an airport. Included in the security plan is a section on Administration, which lists the AAF/site Operator and the individual responsible for AAF/site security. The responsibilities of this individual should be specifically stated including the "time provision of evidence of security measure compliance upon request. Responsibilities include: (1) maintenance of a complete and current listing of all individuals with AAF access; (2) maintenance of documentation of all training provision in accordance with any current AAF security procedures; (3) maintaining and updating the AAF Security Procedures to reflect the current state of conditions at the AAF; (4) maintaining and updating the AAF Security Procedures to reflect the current state of conditions at the AAF; (5) timely distribution of the AAF Security Procedures or specific parts thereof, to appropriate persons or entities; (6) proper dissemination of all correspondence or other communications with AAF tenants and others on security related matters; and (7) Daily oversight of security provisions at the AAF and ensuring compliance with the Security Procedures. (Department of the Interior Aviation Facilities Security Procedures, 2006) The aircraft security plan should contain a section on the aircraft movement…

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