Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
This section will be used to provide a summary of the research and important findings supported by citations.
Arcand, Yves and Pierre Talbot. (2000) "Using Peat to Treat Wastewater." Journal of Environmental Health 62(6): 36.
Author provides a description concerning the utility of peat moss in wastewater treatment applications. Included in the report is a discussion concerning the origins of habitats favored by peat moss. Author also presents a useful basic description of this species and its physiology.
Coggins, Reed. (2002). "Ferns and Fire: Village Subsistence, Landscape Change, and Nature
Conservation in China's Southeast Uplands." Journal of Cultural Geography 19(2): 129-
Author describes the economic impact of fern species for agricultural practices in rural
China where ferns are burned and used as fertilizer as well as used as a rotation crop to improve crop yields. Report provides useful background information for ferns.
Falcon-Long, H.J., D.J. Cantrill and C.J. Nichols. Biodiversity and Terrestrial Ecology of a Mid-cretaceous, High-latitude Floodplain Alexander Island, Antarctica. Journal of the Geological Society 158: 709-711.
Authors present their findings concerning the flora of Alexander Island, Antarctica,
including several species of ferns and the role they play in the region's biodiversity.
Authors include several descriptions of various life stages of ferns as well that will provide useful information for the proposed study.
Floyd, Sandra K., Christopher S. Zalewski and John L. Bowman. (2006). "Evolution of Class Iii
Homeodomain-leucine Zipper Genes in Streptophytes." Genetics 173(1): 373-374.
Authors examine evolution of various land-based plants to determine the developmental roles of a specific gene family and found that as land plants became more complex through gene duplications, so too did the role of the investigated gene family, class III
HD-Zip. Authors identify future study directions for ferns that may provide a useful point of departure for further analysis.
Hanson, Earl D. Understanding Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Author presents a comprehensive overview of mosses and ferns as well as their reproductive cycles. Although the focus of this text is on the role played by evolution in promoting modern species, author provides a valuable straightforward description of these organisms and how they function in the environment.
Mohlenbrock, Robert H. (2003, October). Fern relations. Natural History, 112(8): 56-57.
In this study, author describes the flora of southwestern Massachusetts including several species of ferns, as well as their reproductive and life cycles that are useful additions to this literature review. Vivid descriptions of various fern species are supplemented by the growing environment preferred by different species. Study provides useful background information and specific data concerning life cycles of ferns that will be valuable additions to the proposed study.
Oplinger, Carl S., Robert Halma and Robert Halma. The Poconos. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
University Press, 2006.
Authors review the flora and fauna of the Poconos, including a comprehensive discussion of the life cycles of various species of ferns and mosses. While their discussion and analysis is restricted to the Poconos region, there is some useful guidance concerning the alternation of generation between mosses and ferns that will be useful for this study.
McDaniel, Stuart F., John H. Willis and a. Jonathan Shaw. (2008). "The Genetic Basis of Developmental Abnormalities in Interpopulation Hybrids of the Moss Ceratodon
Purpureus." Genetics 179(3): 1425-1426.
In this follow-up study to the 2007 study listed below, authors present the results of their research into the genetic basis of abnormal hybrid development in the offspring of crosses between two isolates of the moss, Ceratodon purpureus. As part of their background information, authors present a useful description of mosses and their life cycles that will be a valuable addition to the outlined study.
McDaniel, Stuart F., John H. Willis and a. Jonathan Shaw. (2007). "A Linkage Map Reveals a Complex Basis for Segregation Distortion in an Interpopulation Cross in the Moss
Ceratodon Purpureus." Genetics 176(4): 2489-2491.
The purpose of this study was to identify segregation patterns across the genome in general and sex chromosomes in particular of a species of moss. As part of their background information, authors present a useful description of mosses and their life cycles that will be a valuable addition to the outlined study.
Polunin, Nicholas. Introduction to Plant Geography and Some Related Sciences. London:
This biology text has…[continue]
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1997). The basis of all plants' alternating generations and complex life cycles could be found in a common ancestor shared with fern species, even though ferns are no better reproducing sexually than moss are fully dependent on a saturated enough environment to perform a task that flowers have developed innumerable methods of getting done (Munster et al. 1997; Mehltreter et al. 2010). Conclusion The life cycles of moss and ferns are