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Wild Type and Lac Operon Mutant Strains of the Bacterium Escherichia Coli

Words: 1073 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Lab Report Paper #: 76906271

Lac Operon Genetics

Practical 2. Analysis of wild type and lac operon mutant strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli

Complete the results tables below using the data you obtained in the practical.

Describe the size, colour and eosin sheen of the colonies on the EMB plates in Table 1 below.

Strain

Size

Colour

Eosin sheen

WT

Large colonies purple

Strong eosin sheen

H

Large colonies purple

Weak eosin sheen

J

Small colonies pink

No eosin sheen

K

Small colonies pink

No eosin sheen

Fill in the fluorescence results for NA+glu and NA+lac in Table 2 below.

Strain

NA+glu within 1 minute of MUG overlay

NA+glu

minutes after MUG overlay

NA+glu

minutes after MUG overlay

NA+lac within 1 minute of MUG overlay

NA+lac

minutes after MUG overlay

NA+lac

minutes after MUG overlay

WT

H

J

K

* Record the degree of fluorescence as (-) or (+) or (++) or (+++). Where…… [Read More]

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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 2352 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: Array

Breast Cancer

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Director of the National Cancer Institute

How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

Many environmental factors can affect a person's risk of breast cancer, but they are not the only issues to consider. Genetics also play a strong role in whether a person develops breast cancer or avoids it. A strong family history of the disease can predispose a person to breast cancer, but it is not a guarantee that the person will acquire the disease. Conversely, people with no family history have also contracted breast cancer, so genetics are not the only issue. They are merely a part of the puzzle. The research here indicates that genetics may be a larger part of the puzzle than first thought, however, and proposes recommendations to spend more time and financial resources on discovering the significance of genes and how they influence breast cancer. Recommendations for action…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cao, Qiang, Qin, Chao, Meng, Xiaoxin, Ju, Xiaobing, Ding, Qi, Wang, Weilin, Zhu, Jian, Wang, Wei, Li, Pu, Jiawei, Chen, Zhang, Zhengdong, and Yin, Changjun. Genetic Polymorphisms in APE1 Are Associated With Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 50: 863-870. 2011. Print.

Chang-Claude, Jenny, Popanda, Odilia, Tan, Xiang-Lin, Kropp, Silke, Helmbold, Irmgard, von Fournier, Dietrick, Haase, Wulf, Sautter-Bihl, Marie Luise, Wenz, Frederik, Schmezer, Peter, and Ambrosone, Christine B. Association between Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes, XRCC1, APE1, and XPD and Acute Side Effects of Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Cancer Research, 11: 4802-4809. 2005. Print.

Kang, Huafeng, Dai, Zhijun, Ma, Xiaobin, Ma, Li, Jin, Yaofeng, Liua, Xiaoxu, and Wang, Xijing. A genetic variant in the promoter of APE1 gene (?656 TNG) is associated with breast cancer risk and progression in a Chinese population. Gene, 531: 97-100. 2013. Print.

Poletto, Mattia, Di Loreto, Carla, Marasco, Daniela, Poletto, Elena, Puglisi, Fabio, Damante, Giuseppe, and Tell, Gianluca. Acetylation on critical lysine residues of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1(APE1) in triple negative breast cancers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 424. 2012. Print.
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Jungsik Yoo at Times I Marvel How

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Admission Essay Paper #: 62397771

Jungsik Yoo

At times, marvel how far have come. Ever since was a young boy, under the influence of my father, a molecular biologist, dreamed of researching genetically inherited diseases. Today, live that reality in my current field of work and research as a graduate student in neuroscience.

Thus, long before most children, because of my early exposure to the field of biology, was intimately aware that one's genetic inheritance could determine an individual's future physical and emotional health. Perhaps it comes as no surprise that soon decided was genetically coded to become a medical researcher. will receive my Ph D. n the summer of 2006 in neuroscience. But my current studies in the field of genetics have also soberly reminded me of how far both my own learning and the field of genetics need to be stretched, before the objectives of genetic research into inherited diseases can be realized.…… [Read More]

I have concluded that the hands-on clinical experience only provided by a medical school education is necessary for me to fulfill the essential experiential element that is crucial to my future desired knowledge base and scope of research. Only medical school will provide me with critical experience that will give my research the desired added practical and human value.

At the end of my education, I hope to become a research doctor who combines clinical research in his study of genetic diseases. I seek to provide the science of genetics with a human face for it is, ultimately, the study of the human body, mind, and 'wiring' in the form of the human genetic code. I been the recipient of a 'Sensory Neuroscience Training Grant '(SNTG) fellowship funded by National institute of health (NIH) since the fall of 2004. Thus I am well aware of the critical role genetics plays in public health of the nation as well as of the field of medical science, because of this generous grant, and I will strive to add to this knowledge in all of my future research.

Also, as a T.A. over the past two years, I have gleaned further knowledge of the curiosity of students for 'in the field' research. I have been grateful to have this human element present even in my PhD education. I am also proud to say I have not merely have received excellent reviews from my students, but joined them in many intramural soccer games, one of my favorite pursuits of my college years. I was not given the genetic gift, sadly, of becoming a great sports star, but I do believe that it is encoded in my own personal biology to bring a vital element of clinical humanity to the important work being done in the field of genetic research.
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Thomas Hunt Morgan Was an

Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8626006

In 1910, Morgan publicly disagreed with the prevailing notion in embryology, that a fully-formed adult was already locked inside the ova or sperm cell. Rather, Morgan argued that there was no single chromosome that guaranteed the heredity of specific traits (Shine and robel 1976).

Drosophila

In 1903, Morgan accepted the first professorship in experimental zoology at Columbia University. He moved his family to New York and began to work in genetics, fueled by his interest in the gaps in the work of Darwin and Mendel. During this time, scientist Hugo De Vries, a geneticist, revisited the work of Mendel and again proposed that new species were created as a result of mutations. Morgan then set out to prove De Vries' theory, using his now-famous Drosophila experiment.

Morgan used X-rays to mutate samples of Drosophila and cross-bred the mutants to regular samples. In 1910, Morgan found a male fly with white…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, G.E. 2000. Thomas Hunt Morgan: The Man and His Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978

Kandel, Eric. 1999. "Genes, Chromosomes, and the Origins of Modern Biology." Columbia Magazine. Fall 1999.

Morgan, Thomas Hunt. 2002. Embryology and Genetics. New York: Agrobios.

Shine, I. And Wrobel, S. 1976. Thomas Hunt Morgan: Pioneer of Genetics. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky
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Genes and Gene Environment Interaction

Words: 1562 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68812903

roles do genes play in determining cell structure and function? How is gene expression regulated?

Genes are composed of sequences of DNA which pass on the organism's genetic blueprint through the process of replication. "By serving as the blueprints of proteins in the body, genes ultimately influence all aspects of body structure and function... An error in one of these genes can lead to a recognizable genetic disease" (McCance & Huether 2012: 126).

What is the role of the environment in development of congenital disorders?

Genes have a considerable influence upon the probability of individuals developing particular disorders. For example, not every smoker develops lung cancer; not every overweight person develops type II diabetes. However, genes determine the likelihood that individuals will develop such disorders. The environment can trigger the expression of certain genes or support the conditions that make the manifestation of such conditions more or less likely to…… [Read More]

Reference

Cri du chat syndrome. (2010). National Human Genome Research Institute. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

 http://www.genome.gov/pfv.cfm?pageID=19517558 

DNA replication. (2002). VBS homepage. Retrieved:

http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/proteinsynthesis/dnarepli.html
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Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Words: 2724 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 59820068

Epidemiology

Liegl-tzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) pointed out that the exact incidences of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the United States and Europe is not easy to determine. This is attributed to the fact that GISTs got proper recognition as well as diagnosis from the late 1990s.Studies carried out in Iceland ( Tryggvason et al.,2005), Sweden (Nilsson et al.,2005), as well as Holland (Goettsch,2004) have indicated that close to 11,14.5 and 12.7 cases per million people per year respectively.Incidences if GISTs have been shown to be higher as a result of the fact that most patients live with it for several years and it gets detected only during gastrectomy or autopsy all of which are usually performed for other reasond. study by gaimy et al.,(2007) which was performed consecutively on autopsies indicated that small GISTs having between 1-10 mm in about 22.5% of the individuals aged above 50 years.These small GISTs…… [Read More]

About 50% of the GISTs exhibit a loss of gene off the arm of chromosome 22. This discovery is associated with the progression of the malignant GIST (Fukasawa et al.,2000;Bergmann et al.,1998;Kim et al., 2000;Lasota et al.,2007). There are however some losses that are less frequent on the chromosomes 9q,17q,1p and 11p.Gains are however noted on chromosomes 17q and 8q all of which have a strong association with malignant behavior (El-Rifai et al.,2000;Schurr et al.,2006).

Clinical features

Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of the clinical features of GISTs.GISTs are mentioned by Liegl-Atzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) to occur in almost every part of the GI tract.They are however more common in the stomach regions ( about 60%), ileum and jejunum (close to 30%), colorectum (about 4%) and duodenum (about 5%).GISTs are rarely seen in the appendix and esophagus (Miettinen et al.,2006;Miettinen, Sobin and Lasota,2005;DeMatteo eat al.,2000). Tumors that lack any form of association with the wall of the bowel are given special name- extragastrointestinal stromal sarcomas are noted to occur in the mesentery, omentum and retroperitoneum (Miettinen et al.,1999;Reith et al.,2000). The clinical symptoms that are associated with GIST are abdominal pain, dysphagia, obstruction, fatigue and satiety.It has been noted that patients may be presented with chronic bleeding to from their GI (Causes anemia). The patient may also present acute bleeding to GI ( as a consequence of the erosion via the gastric or the bowel mucosa). There could also be a rupture into the patient's abdominal cavity thus causing a life-threatening condition called intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Nilsson et al. (2005) indicated that a population-based research indicated that close to seventy percent of GISTs were related to clinical symptoms while twenty percent were not. 10% were detected at the time of autopsies.
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Discovery of the Structure of

Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81223929

However, the use of this technology has also introduced a whole host of ethical and health issues. This is important, because how these issue are wrestled with in the future, will determine the way this technology will be applied to daily life.

A bibliography that includes all references cited in the report and a 1-2 sentence summary of what information was gained from each reference.

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). HO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/

This source identified specific ethical and health issues that are affecting the use of genetic engineering. It was useful in recognizing specific factors and issues that could be affecting the way genetic engineering is impacting daily life.

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from: http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx

This source was useful in providing background as to when DNA was discovered and what compounds were looked at before its discovery.

Ejelonu, A.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

20 Questions on Genetically Modified Foods. (2010). WHO. Retrieved from:  http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/biotech/20questions/en/ 

The Search for the Structure of DNA. (2010). Online Ethics. Retrieved from:  http://www.onlineethics.org/Education/precollege/scienceclass/sectone/cs4.aspx 

What is DNA. (2010). NIH. Retrieved from:  http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/dna 

Ejelonu, A. (2002). What is the Human Genome Project. Serendip. Retrieved from:  http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f01/web1/ejelonu.html
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Hermaphrodite Is an Organism in Which a

Words: 977 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63693030

Hermaphrodite is an organism in which a single individual has both male and female gametes. Many plants and some animals are naturally hermaphroditic and can self-fertilize and reproduce themselves from a single organism. (Omoto & Lurquin, 2004, p. 209) While some species actually reproduce asexually, such as single celled organisms and other creatures, this is not the same as being hermaphrodite. There are benefits to the species in some sense in being able to self-fertilize and reproduce in this way. Sexual reproduction in effects cuts the population's growth rate in half. Only females produce offspring, not males. If half the population is male, then the speed of population growth is half that of an all-female population. An all-female species can quickly out produce a male/female species, allowing an all-female species to survive in high mortality habitats where a male/female species can't succeed. This result is also true in hermaphrodite species,…… [Read More]

References

Corazza, E. (2004). Reflecting the Mind: Indexicality and Quasi-Indexicality. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Dreger, A.D. (1998). Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hope, Ian A. (1999) C. elegans: a practical approach. London: Oxford University Press.

Kaplan, J. (2006). Misinformation, Misrepresentation and Misuse of Human Behavioral Genetics Research. Law and Contemporary Problems, 69(1-2), 47-59.
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Authors Address Jacobsen Syndrome Which

Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88680665

Large size is a primary expressing symptom of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The authors also used imaging analysis hardware and software, as well as using the patented CpGenome DNA modification kit for further testing.

Explain how the article relates to genetics topics addressed in lecture.

The article relates to a wide range of genetics topics including chromosomal abnormalities, alleles, the use of fluorescence in chromosomal analysis testing, cytogenetic abnormalities, genotypes, phenotypes, karyotypes, and the process of chromosomal rearrangement or deletion de novo.

Explain the significance of the species chosen for use in the study.

The species chosen for use in the study was human; significance does not need to be explained. The authors did need to receive consent from the parents for all diagnostic procedures, which were performed within the ethical guidelines of the Institutional Review Board of the Hannover Medical School.

Explain the most significant conclusions presented in the article.

One…… [Read More]

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Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics

Words: 2012 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94040147

Genomes and Comparative Genomics

Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.

The Role of DNA

One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56

Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist

Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist

TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
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Human Stem Cell Medical -

Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11610140

This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]

Bibliography

O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at  http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.  http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
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Sex vs Gender and Nature vs Nature

Words: 3220 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4959495

sex vs. gender and nature vs. nature on a multi-disciplinary approach. e base our discussion on a variety of papers which we present as annotated bibliography. The papers are then used in the development of rest of the paper. e present our paper on the following views: religion, culture, norms, society etc.

One of the major issues that has attracted a lot of debate in this century in the field of psychiatry revolves around nature and nurture (Keltner et al., 2001).Nurture is used to refer to upbringing and nature refers to biological aspects of life.There is a raging controversy that revolves around hereditary environment with several historical evidences used in order to explain the connection between the two. The history locates the genesis of this debate to John Locke.It'd worth noting that this controversy has never stopped. This is because it still remains a major question as to how much…… [Read More]

Walker PL and Cook DC.(1998) Gender and sex: vive la difference. Am J. Phys Anthropol 106: 255 -- 259,.[CrossRef]

 http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/external_ref-access_num=000074020500011&link_type=ISI 

 http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/external_ref-access_num=9637188&link_type=MED
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Examining Personality With Reference to Genes

Words: 1119 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33310134

Individual Differences Approach to Personality:

Personality is a term that has largely been considered an unproblematic concept and primarily refers to the varying kinds of characteristics of individuals. Despite this assumption, psychologists have constantly used the word in different ways. The varying views in the use of this concept or term are fueled by the fact that psychology usually makes generalizations regarding individuals. Generally, personality seeks to examine the many differences and similarities between individuals. Formal evaluation and study of personality have mainly focused on patterns of similarities vs. patterns of differences among individuals. When evaluating patterns of differences, the concept of abnormality has emerged and attracted huge concerns among psychologists. Since the issue is controversial, there are concerns whether individual differences in personality can be effectively explained with reference to genes.

Individual Differences Approach to Personality Theory:

As previously mentioned, personality is a concept that primarily focuses on examining…… [Read More]

Reference:

Thomas, K. (n.d.). The Individual Differences Approach to Personality (chapter 5, pp.291-342).
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Genetic Influences on Behavior While

Words: 425 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26711372

However, while it is tempting to claim genetic influences as superior to environmental ones, there is still a great debate over whether and individual can overcome their genetics setbacks or be enhanced by their genetic superiority. The former is often achievable as in the case of the addict who has recovered from their addiction, the latter brings us to the morally trepidatious ground of eugenics where by genetic engineering can enhance the good traits and limit the bad traits. The problem there is who decides which traits to keep or loose? Usually decisions left up to a higher authority.

eferences

Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.

Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key…… [Read More]

References

Gesell, A., Thompson, H., & Strunk, C. (1938). The Psychology of Early Growth: Including Norms of Infant Behavior and a Method of Genetic Analysis. New York: Macmillan.

Jang, K.L. (2005). The Behavioral Genetics of Psychopathology: A Clinical Guide. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Johnson, A. (2003, February). The Genetic Key to Public Health: Strides in Genetics Research Are Making a Difference in Public Health. State Legislatures, 29, 28.

Parens, E. (2004). Genetic Differences and Human Identities: On Why Talking about Behavioral Genetics Is Important and Difficult. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 1-9.
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Psychology Dawkins' Selfish Gene and

Words: 1827 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34663368

Nonetheless, an argument from common sense can be made based on our own observational context. For example, neurologically speaking, there is a wealth of evidence to illustrate that genes have an immense impact on the final structure of the brain, and thus on behavior. Schizophrenia is an obvious example of this.

Logically, though, there is also abundant support for Dawkins' thesis. oughly, an argument can be shown to be logically viable if its conclusions can be reasonably drawn from its suppositions based on the available evidence. This is abundantly the case in the Selfish Gene, wherein Dawkins (1976) draws on all the existing evidence on evolutionary theory and the development of life, including the mechanism of natural selection (p. 48) and DNA as the molecule of choice for genetic propagation (pp. 22-23). The evidence that Dawkins provides is, quite simply, sufficient to support his argument that the gene should be…… [Read More]

References

Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hergenhahn, B.R. (2005). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. 5th ed. Wadsworth-Thomson Learning.
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Phenotype How Variations Arise Within a Phenotype

Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81307836

Phenotype

How variations arise within a phenotype?

Phenotype is the specific characteristics that are displayed by the organism. Phenotypic variation is a prerequisite for evolution due to natural selection, thus without the former, there is no latter. Qualitative traits are traits that show a difference between phenotypes like skin color, sex, and eye color. However, such descriptions are controlled by a small number of genes so environmental influence on these traits is low since it involves the genetics of individuals. Quantitative traits are traits that exhibit a continuous range from one phenotype to another. Therefore, there is no difference between phenotypes and are usually influenced by several gene pairs while the environment has a significant influence on the trait. This type of trait involves the genetics of populations. It is a combination of genetic and environmental factors to produce phenotypes that blend into each other. Phenotypic variance or VP is…… [Read More]

References

Bellevue College Science Division (2011) Mutation and Genetic Diseases, [online] Available at:  http://scidiv.bellevuecollege.edu/rkr/Biology211/lectures/pdfs/GeneticDisease211.pdf  [Accessed: 20 April 2011].

Biology 346-Evolution (2011) Chapter 13-Evolution of Phenotypic Traits, [online] Available at: www.cbu.edu/~esalgado/BIOL346/ch13.doc [Accessed: 20 April 2011].

Chicago Center for Jewish Genetic Disorders (2008) Intro to Genetics, [online] Available at:  http://www.jewishgenetics.org/?q=content/intro-genetics  [Accessed: 20 April 2011].

Grimmel College (2011) Lab 2 -- Sources of Phenotypic Variation, [online] Available at:  http://web.grinnell.edu/individuals/brownj/edu/136_lab2.html  [Accessed: 20 April 2011].
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Technology Has Revolutionized Society Communication Transportation Commerce

Words: 1736 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84215378

technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…… [Read More]

References

About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from:  http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources  / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml

Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database:  http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/ 

Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine

Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from:  http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html
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Buck vs Bell Lee M Silver's Remaking

Words: 1498 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10498583

Buck vs. Bell

Lee M. Silver's Remaking Eden and Dr. Leon R. Kass' Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity provide differing perspectives on the applicability of the issue of the case of Buck vs. Bell to today's society. In Buck vs. Bell, eugenics and Social Darwinism spurred a Supreme Court decision that allowed forced sterilization. In Remaking Eden, the perspective of Silver effectively argues that the case of Buck vs. Bell is not at all applicable to genetic issues today. Silver's optimistic stance on genetic engineering seems to indicate that human innovativeness and ingenuity will allow humans to successfully use genetic technologies to improve the world. In contrast, Kass' perspective suggests that the case of Buck vs. Bell is highly applicable to genetic issues today. Kass notes that even well-meaning and benevolent applications of technology can have devastating impacts on human dignity, echoing a theme found in the violation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kass, Leon. 2004. Life, Liberty and the Defense of Dignity: The Challenge for Bioethics. Encounter Books.

Silver, Lee. 1998. Remaking Eden. Perennial.

Syracuse University, Personal Home Pages. Buck Vs. Bell. http://web.syr.edu/~slbignes
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Anti Social Behavior Personality Is

Words: 328 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49189602

The media is one of the most intense factors to influence people's personalities, with the audience often being inclined to follow what they see in the news. The American public, especially, spends a large time watching television, and, during the time that the T.V. is open, people watch hundreds of violent scenes. All things considered, the media encourages aggression and controls the way in which people's personalities are being shaped.

Scientists still have a long way to go until they will properly determine which are the exact factors influencing anti-social behavior. Most probably, time will solve the problem, and, in a few decades, people will be able to comprehend the ways in which genetics and environmental factors act on the human mind.

orks cited:

1. Laura A. Baker, Serena Bezdjian, Adrian Raine. (2006). "Behavioral Genetics: The Science of Antisocial Behavior." Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 69.

Laura A. Baker, Serena…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Laura A. Baker, Serena Bezdjian, Adrian Raine. (2006). "Behavioral Genetics: The Science of Antisocial Behavior." Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 69.

Laura A. Baker, Serena Bezdjian, Adrian Raine. (2006). "Behavioral Genetics: The Science of Antisocial Behavior." Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 69.
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S T E M Article Review Pochran S 2011 Sept

Words: 498 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35160479

S.T.E.M. Article Review

Pochran, S. (2011, Sept. 21). What's on your genes? Tiny genetic switches create big differences. Science News Magazine. Retrieved from https://student.societyforscience.org/article/what%E2%80%99s-your-genes.

This article shows that scientific advances have allowed researchers to significantly modify the physical appearance of offspring through intervention and modification of the genes of the parents. Instead of what is "in" your genes, Pochran (2011) studies modifications which are "on" the genes. She makes this distinction by describing a research study wherein two mice were created; they were genetically identical. They were twins on a genetic level. However, they were physically different in an extreme way. One mouse was small and brown and the other was large, overweight, and orange in color. This experiment, conducted at Duke University by Randy Jirtle and his colleagues showed how methyl groups attach to DNA and can effectively turn off genetic markers which are in the chromosomes. So, even…… [Read More]

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Exchange of Genetic Material Between

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26300682

Buying a 17 acre farm with the inheritance left him at age 21 by his father, Burbank got to work on producing better strains of plants and trees to increase yield, promote disease resistance, resist environmental changes, and resistance to insects and fungus'. Burbank cross pollinated all the flowers of plants by hand and planted all the resulting seeds. From these seeds, he then selected the most promising plants to cross with other ones to ensure the best was achieved. From the book, "The Cavalcade of America," the unknown author refers to Burbank as the "Plant Wizard" and writes of the many lasting accomplishments he made in regards to the field of agriculture. (Cavalcade, 1946, pg 129). Many scientist dispute Burbanks and his work due to the documentation kept was not in line with 'proper' scientific documentation.

Conclusion

The opinion of this researcher is that while Mendel studied hybridization and…… [Read More]

References

Stegemann, S. & Bock, R. Exchange of genetic material between cells in plants tissue

Grafts. Science, pg 649-651. Retrieved on April 1, 2010 from www.sciencemag.com.

The cavalcade of America. (1946). Retrieved on April 7, 2010 from  http://www.otrr.org/FILES/Scripts_pdf
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Alternation of Generation Between Mosses

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49062476



Chapter Conclusion

This section will be used to provide a summary of the research and important findings supported by citations.

References

Arcand, Yves and Pierre Talbot. (2000) "Using Peat to Treat Wastewater." Journal of Environmental Health 62(6): 36.

Author provides a description concerning the utility of peat moss in wastewater treatment applications. Included in the report is a discussion concerning the origins of habitats favored by peat moss. Author also presents a useful basic description of this species and its physiology.

Coggins, Reed. (2002). "Ferns and Fire: Village Subsistence, andscape Change, and Nature

Conservation in China's Southeast Uplands." Journal of Cultural Geography 19(2): 129-

Author describes the economic impact of fern species for agricultural practices in rural

China where ferns are burned and used as fertilizer as well as used as a rotation crop to improve crop yields. Report provides useful background information for ferns.

Falcon-ong, H.J., D.J. Cantrill and…… [Read More]

Longmans, 1960.

This biology text has several sections devoted to Byrophtya, including the mosses, including detailed descriptions of their life cycles and the processes that are involved.

Author also provides several graphics that will be useful in illustrating these life cycle processes for mosses.
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Nature and Nurture the Relatively

Words: 1287 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38447121



That is simply because individual in the same family are much more likely than unrelated individuals to share similar foundational experiences by virtue of their exposure to similar parenting and resources in their immediate environment throughout their early lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). Just as hesus monkeys tend to adopt maternal behaviors and elements of personalities of their mothers irrespective of their genetic inclinations, so do human infants and growing children and adolescents internalize and adopt various aspects of the behaviors and reactions exhibited by their parents and other significant adult behavioral role models in their lives (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007).

Twin Studies

The quality of resources available to siblings (such as food, medicine, educational opportunities, etc.) is generally very similar within biological families (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2007; utter, 2006). To the extent these factors contribute to the development of behavior, it is extremely difficult if not impossible…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R., and Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. Prentice Hall.

Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and Behavior: Nature - Nurture Interplay Explained. Wiley-

Blackwell.

Steen, R.G. (1996). DNA and Destiny: Nature & Nurture in Human Behavior. De Capo.
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Polydactylism Polydactyly Is a Relatively

Words: 2143 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14456156

This would clearly be preferable to performing surgery, but may be more applicable in cases of type B than type a polydactyly. Of a total of 21 cases which were examined, this procedure resulted in a slight complication in only one case, where the digit had to be removed surgically due to failure of removal by suture ligation. The only real side effect of this simple treatment is that there was found to be a small bump remaining at the site in 43% of cases.

Conclusion

Although there has been some work into the genetic basis of polydactyly, advances in examination of the human genome may create a better understanding of the condition in the future. A large amount of the work done so far has been focused on animal models, and there is still room for further work to discover the genetic basis of the different types of polydactyly…… [Read More]

References

Ataru, S., Park, S. & Ryo, Y. (2005). Surgical treatment for lateral ray polydactyly of the foot: Toe selection and interdigital space reconstruction using a planter flap. Japanese Journal of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 48(2): 155-159.

Boeing, M., Cassia F. Paiva, L., Lima Garcias, G., Graca Martino Roth, M. & Santos, I.S. (2001). Epidemiologia das polidactilias: Um estudo de casos e controles na populacao de Pelotas-RS. Journal de Pediatria, 77(2); d.o.i.: 10.1590/S0021-7557200100017.

Borisch, N., Stunitz, B. & Blauth, W. (1995). Case histories surgical treatment of polydactyl of the little toe involving proximal and middle phalanx. Orthopedics and Traumatology, 4(4): 246-253.

Gurnett, C.A., Bowcock, a.M., Dietz, F.R., Morcuende, J.A., Murray, J.C. & Dobbs, M.B. (2007). Two novel point mutations in the long-range SHH enhancer in three families with triphalangeal thumb and preaxial polydactyly. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 143(1): 27-32.
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Survival Theory Richard Dawkins' the

Words: 3529 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36022554

As this meme passed down through generations, it became more pervasive and it also became more complete. When slavery in the New World began, both blacks and whites were enslaved, black slaves could gain freedom, and slavery was not a condition of birth. However, as that changed, the memes surrounding African-Americans also changed. Not only were blacks seen as not equal to whites, but they were seen as incapable of becoming equal to whites. Therefore, when Jim Crow segregation was first challenged under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Supreme Court determined that separate facilities were not inherently unequal, despite overwhelming evidence that the facilities provided for African-Americans were factually inferior to those provided for whites. While this meme has been challenged by newer ideas and has, generally, not stood up to scientific, moral, and religious challenges, vestiges of it remain in almost every American person. As a result, many Americans, of…… [Read More]

References

Corrales, J. (1999) the politics of education reform: bolstering the supply and demand; overcoming institutional blocks. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World Bank

Web site: http://www1.worldbank.org/education/globaleducationreform/pdf/corrales.pdf

Catalano, J. (1996) Review: Richard Dawkins: books: the selfish gene. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World of Richard Dawkins

Web site:  http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Dawkins/Work/Books/selfish.shtml