Analytical and Comparative Term Paper

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immigrant women in Canada

Several eminent authors have composed various masterpieces or performed intensive research on the bittersweet experiences as well as the treatment of immigrant women in Canada. In the following passages of our analytical research paper, we will discuss in detail a particular group, that is the Chinese and the Hong Kong women settled in Canada. Firstly this paper provides an account of the progress of the immigration policies in Canada since its origin until today and its effects on the entryway of Chinese immigrant women in Canada. The paper then presents the effect of standardized policies regarding race and sex on Chinese immigrant women. Last but not the least, this research report and analytical essay looks into the institutional processes including employment and unemployment as well as the organizational processes including the relationships between family members, child care, household chores and social life which affected the lives of skilled Chinese women who migrated from China and Hong Kong and are settled in Canada. In the end, the paper summarizes and concludes with a brief critical analysis, putting all together. The paper further appends a reference page based on four outside sources.

Introduction

In early 1990s, the Canadian government introduced a law, which highlighted that the targeted immigrant groups in Canada were the professionals as well as the skilled immigrants (Globalization and the Erosion of the welfare state). Such laws were written in order to motivate highly professional people from all over the world to become a part of Canada, as well as to bring about exchange of business. In addition to the above, this approach assisted the government of Canada in boosting up their competition in the worldwide market as well as to improve their economy through highly experienced professional and adaptable workforce (Globalization and the Erosion of the welfare state). Such a "brain-drain" (Globalization and the Erosion of the welfare state) of talented workforce resulted in the decline of other economies of the countries worldwide. Several of these highly skilled as well as learned workers migrated to Canada were the Chinese women.

Former Immigration Procedures and Chinese Immigrant Women

Since the inception of Chinese immigration to Canada in the year 1858 till 1947 (Globalization and the Erosion of the welfare state), several sexist limitations were exacted on the Chinese as well as some of citizens of other countries excluding the western European immigrants (Globalization and the Erosion of the welfare state). At the time, the Chinese immigrants were weighed as a lesser sect thereby regarded as the "non-preferred race" (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant). This strategy was adopted in order to reduce the immigration of Chinese. Heavy taxes were charged in order to curb impoverished laborers from entering Canada. These heavy taxes resulted in the reduction of Chinese immigrants and forced them to head back home. The Chinese females who succeeded in-migrating to Canada without families were considered a bad influence on their society. Such racial as well as sex discrimination provided small scope for Chinese women. Most of the Chinese women were unable to pay the "head taxes" (Globalization and the Erosion of the welfare state) because of limited employment opportunities, as a result few workers settled in Canada. Those females who managed to settle in Canada worked on an agreement that helped them pay off their taxes and roaming costs but with a high interest rate. However head tax were not imposed on all Chinese, different classes were to pay different amount of tax. For instance rich Chinese families were allowed into Canada for the sheer reason of trade, therefore they were required to pay a meager amount of tax (Globalization and the Erosion of the welfare state). Poor Chinese women were prohibited marital life thereby reducing the number of Chinese female population in Canada.

Recent Progress

From the year 1987, the number of Hong Kong immigrants has increased rapidly (Globalization and the Erosion of the welfare state). Even though several policies have been changed and newer ones have been enforced in order to attract Chinese people with money so as to bring about huge investments within Canada but the female Chinese immigrants still remains small in number. The changeover of Hong Kong from British to Chinese rule has bolstered the confidence of the people of Hong Kong and has painted an optimistic picture for them. For the past many years, the number of Chinese immigrants has increased, thereby calling it the "single largest group of immigrants in Canada" (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant). However the sex discrimination still exists and Chinese women settled in Canada are deprived of an optimistic and a bright future.

Experience of female Chinese immigrants to Canada

Several "social scientists" (The experience of Middle-class Women in Recent Hong Kong Chinese Immigrant Families in Canada) have categorized all Chinese as one "homogenous group" (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant). On the contrary, in actuality the Chinese belong to different regional sites, some of which are Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong (). In addition to the above they come from divergent cultures and subgroups and occupy separate "class," "age," "gender" (The experience of Middle-class Women in Recent Hong Kong Chinese Immigrant Families in Canada) as well as "sexual locations" (). Another example is that of female Chinese immigrants from Hong Kong greatly differ from those of Mainland China immigrants as they belong to separate governmental as well as economic framework (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant). In short, the Hong Kong female immigrants are richer and possess individual property before moving to Canada as compared to the immigrants from China. However, the Canadian government only requires highly skilled workforce irrespective of their countries.

In the following passage we will discuss the "institutional processes" that effect the experiences of middle class Chinese women immigrants in Canada as well as the social organizations of both the societies (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant).

Institutional Processes

The term "institutional processes" is used for those processes and applications that are the fundamentals of the government, literacy, law as well as "professional systems" (The experience of Middle-class Women in Recent Hong Kong Chinese Immigrant Families in Canada). Such processes are the cause of "social injustice" (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant) within a society. Following is the account of effects of institutionalized processes in employment that is based on two surveys including married women immigrants from Hong Kong as well as China. These two studies show that most women moved to Canada with their husbands under the independent class or as business immigrants (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant). These women worked back home on the basis of their individual degrees and were considered highly skilled workers but when they moved to Canada, they were not eligible for the Canadian experience requirement and as a result they were unable to work. Some of the women, who did manage to seek employment, were either underpaid or were rejected. The Canadian women irrespective of their qualifications were given preference over the Chinese immigrant women. This discrimination badly affected the livelihood of Chinese immigrants and resulted in extreme feeling of disappointment and lack of self-esteem as well as self- satisfaction (The experience of Middle-class Women in Recent Hong Kong Chinese Immigrant Families in Canada). In addition to the above, the deserving Chinese women immigrants were not given promotion which augmented the Chinese discrimination. One of the studies conducted for the Chinese Canadian National Council revealed that 63% of survey participants from Chinese Canadian Org. And 59% from non-Chinese -Canadian social work organizations believe that Chinese- Canadian are being "discriminated" against each other (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant). Several of the female immigrants changed their thinking and to adjust to the change as well as to learn to view things positively, others joined training programs in order to be able to qualify according to the standards of Canada as well as to gain a sense of belonging. Some of the other Chinese women immigrants started their own business so as to apply their intelligence and energy into their own work. The underemployment or lack of employment of Chinese women in Canada has vastly disturbed them mentally and has damaged their strength and personality altogether (The experience of Middle-class Women in Recent Hong Kong Chinese Immigrant Families in Canada). The shattered expectations of these women and the difficulties in speaking in English has exasperated solitude and caused many women to commit suicide (Racism, sexism, and experience of Chinese Immigrant).

Organizational Processes

Organizational processes are those processes that formed the basis of physical changes and effected the Chinese women immigrants just by being a part of Canada. For instance the relationships between the family members due to the discriminating attitude towards Chinese women immigrants. Before the 1980s the Chinese immigrants in Canada earned a better or an equal wage as compared to those in Hong Kong and enjoyed other employee benefits (The experience of Middle-class Women in Recent Hong…[continue]

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