Anthropology Behavioral Implications of Developmental Term Paper

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Technological innovations were common as mankind learned to communicate with one another. Working in social groups early humans discovered tools, methods for controlling fire and using the wheel and eventual begin developing methods for "recording and communicating message" to one another, resulting in "the creation of larger societal units, hierarchical differentiation and specialized division of labor" (Laszlo, 2001: 654).

Language communication and development have made possible faster growth, more complexity within society and higher levels of socialization and interaction. Through increased communication and interaction humans were able to develop and work together to discover technological innovation that further changed the way humans behave. Organization within human communities and territorial expansion continued to rise and homosapiens continued on a path of socio-cultural evolution stemming from language developments (Gibson, 1987).

Current Behavioral Implications Modern Humans

Laszlo (2001) suggests we are at a "critical juncture in the history of our species" when "a mode of evolution that was dominant since the advance of the Neolithic creatins unsustainable conditions" (p. 654). The researcher suggest that behavioral implications of evolutionary changes that have occurred in the past have included the need to conquest, colonize and consume, at times more than the earth is capable of providing. He further asserts that whereas in times of old man evolved from villages and caves now humans are evolving toward a state where people are becoming more interconnected and relying more on information-based social, cultural and economic systems that will influence global relationships and human evolvement into the next several centuries.

Further the researcher argues that evolution is in an intense stage where connection, communication and above all consciousness have become a grave concern. He characterizes modern behavior and development as a period of "intensive evolution" and sees a need to further develop human behavior to create a sustainable and humane future for mankind.

There are many problems that modern humans face including new economic, social and cultural evolutionary changes. This path is likely to be hazardous at times and filled with problems. For sustainable development to occur human beings must develop clear strategies and tools for managing sustainable development in this climate. That will require more interaction, communication and understanding.

The same challenges that faced pre-historical humankind though will face humans tomorrow and into the next century. Mankind will still need to find adequate food, land and a financial base with which to live. Conceptual thinking will continue to develop, encouraging further cooperation among groups. The primary difference is more sophisticated technologies will be used to facilitate this process; whereas crude tools were used in times of old, today digital technology is used to connect humankind the world over.

For humans in the next millennium the biggest challenges will include increasing expansion of the population and hence increasingly limited resources. Laszlo suggests that depletion of physical life support systems and "nonrenewable sources" may stretch our development and ability to interact in some ways. There is suggestion and support among anthropologists that socio-cultural evolution must shift in the upcoming years to accommodate changing needs.

Humans must move from socio-cultural stages of populating and colonizing alone to one that is focused on embracing the very forces of nature that will drive technology and enable mankind to connect in new ways, communicate more comprehensively and clearly and raise the level of human understanding and universal consciousness or awareness that exists.


There is ample evidence suggesting that human behavior is a direct correlate of biological or physiological developments that have occurred within humankind over thousands of years. Perhaps the most influential development was bipedalism, that allowed humans to interact in more social ways, explore greater methods for survival, allowed greater hunting and gathering possibilities and encouraged greater dependency and interaction.

Along with bipedalism came a larger brain capacity, which also encouraged greater social interaction and collaboration. Speech or language development provided humankind yet another outlet to share ideas and collaborate and work together in complex social communities.

As time continues humans will continue to evolve. In the future communication and collaboration will become more important as mankind works together to take advantage of technology to adapt and survive in a world with increasingly limited natural resources.


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1973. Evolution and Human Behavior: An Introduction to Darwinian Anthropology. New York: Anchor Press.

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Cronk, L.

1999. That Complex Whole: Culture and the Evolution of Human Behavior. Boulder: Westview Press.

Barnes-Holmes, D., Dymond, S., & Roche, B.

2003. "The continuity strategy, human behavior and behavior analysis." The Psychological Record, 53(3): 333.

Dunbar, R.I.M.

1992. "Neocortex size as a constraint on group size in primates." Journal of Human Evolution, 20: 469-493.

Gibson, K.R.

1987. "Cognition, brain size and the extraction of embedded food resources." In J.GF. Else P.C. Lee (eds.) Primate Ontogeny, Cognition and Social Behaviour.

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