Argentina's Definition of Terrorism Is Term Paper
- Length: 10 pages
- Sources: 20
- Subject: Terrorism
- Type: Term Paper
- Paper: #55237152
Excerpt from Term Paper :
These policies aim to prevent such proceeds from being utilized in future criminal activities and from affecting legitimate economic activities" (Anti-Money Laundering Authority, n.d.).
Another action taken at the international level this time is represented by the cooperation programs which are designed to strengthen the level of information exchange on the one hand and the financial possibilities of the countries involved in the projects on the other hand. Thus, "Argentina cooperated closely in all significant international counterterrorism efforts within the United Nations and the Organization of American States (OAS) where it was vice-chair of the Inter-American Committee Against Terrorism; the United States was chair. The Argentine Government was instrumental in promoting improved coordination with its neighbors (Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Chile) in strengthening security and countering terrorist-support networks in the Triborder area. The Government of Argentina has been particularly cooperative in responding to requests related to blocking the financial assets of terrorists. Argentina is a party to eight of the 12 conventions and protocols relating to terrorism" (Privacy International, 2004). This general outlook comes to underline the major policies the Argentinean state decided to follow.
On the one hand, it has dealt with terrorism at a regional level. In this sense, the neighbors of Argentina and the Latin American state have tried to improve their regional cooperation. Thus, "Government was instrumental in promoting improved coordination with its neighbors (Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Chile) in strengthening security and countering terrorist-support networks in the Triborder area" (Privacy International, 2004). This is one of the most important aspects of cooperation process between the states in the region. They offer a valuable framework in which they can exchange information, strengthen the ties at the political level and have a better coordinated policy concerning counter terrorist measures and international crimes.
The "Tri-border Initiative" represents one of the most important border programs of the region. The initiative worth one million dollars aims at strengthening the cooperation process between Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This area has been closely monitored by the United States in particular because it "has long been the focal point for Islamic extremism and terrorist fundraising in Latin America. The Department of State used $1 million in FY 2002 Supplemental funds to conduct needs assessments in those countries and began to bridge gaps in their information sharing processes regarding persons suspected of involvement in international terror groups" (U.S. Department of State, n.d.). Argentina represents an important element in this policy especially taking into consideration its history regarding the terrorist events which have been claimed by Islamic extremists.
On the other hand, Argentina deals with the issue of terrorism at a legal level. It is part of the legal system related to anti-terrorist measures of the UN. Despite the fact that international organization has failed to this date to draft a proper definition of the idea of terrorism, it has a rather consistent legal framework on which states can rely and adhere to in their attempt to fight terrorism. Thus, "the Government of Argentina has been particularly cooperative in responding to requests related to blocking the financial assets of terrorists. Argentina is a party to eight of the 12 conventions and protocols relating to terrorism" (Privacy International, 2004). This aspect is important because it represents some of the most important areas in which the Argentinean government can show its allegiance with the wider cause against terrorism as well as its interest and desire to respect and uphold peace in the world.
Another aspect of Argentina's policy towards terrorism and its aims to prove beyond their diplomatic wording is the actual attitudes the government is taking in regard to international cooperation. Thus, one such aspect is the case of former Iranian ambassador to Argentina, Hadi Soleimanpour who was linked to the 1994 bombings and who has been for several years now the subject of diplomatic quarrels between Argentina and Great Britain (Payvand's Iran News, 2003). However, in an attempt to increase the level of confidence between the states involved in the issue, Argentina engaged herself to offer as many information as possible for rendering the criminals to justice.
In terms of the legal aspects inside the country Argentina tries to get in line with the rest of the developed countries especially the United States by proposing laws which would increase the authority of the state in the matter of information gathering and usage. Thus, one of the laws promoted in 2003 argued that the Forces of the Army, in case of a terrorist threat will be allowed to take measures related to the internal order of the country (Ley antiterrorista en Argentina, 2003). This aspect is important given the fact that it offers a proper perspective on the importance anti-terrorist measures have for the Argentinean state.
However, not all the states are willing to offer their full support and cooperation. In this sense, "although, a year after the 11 September attacks on New York and Washington, most Latin Americans agree that the terrorist threat is a global one, they continue to disapprove of the U.S.-British war on Afghanistan, and are wary about a possible military strike on Iraq" (Third World Network, 2002). This 2002 statement comes to prove that several states in Latin America, especially those which had suffered from the interventionist policy of the United States did not approve of the actual policies conducted by the Americans and refused to fully engage in the antiterrorist process.
Ideas to reach the goals of cooperation
The goals of the Argentinean foreign policy related to the issue of terrorism are connected in fact to the present initiatives. These aspects must be viewed in the wider geo political context. Thus, one of the most important goals is related to the achievements of the Tri Border Initiative which combines the efforts of the U.S. with those of the regional players. In this sense, there is the concern that "although the tri-border area (TBA) of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay has been a regional hub for Hizballah and Hamas fundraising activities, the State Department report maintains that there is no corroborated information that Islamic extremist groups have an operational presence in the TBA or elsewhere in Latin America" (Sullivan, 2006). This comes to prove the fact that the presences of the Islamic forces are rather powerful in this area. One idea for strengthening the initiatives promoted by this course of action would be a better financing of the security forces in the area as well as better control at the borders.
In relation to the issues of corruption and money laundry, Argentina although has made progress in this sense, it is rather limited in visibility. Thus, in 2006 Argentina received the qualification "moderate" in relation to corruption and scandals (Global Integrity, n.d). Therefore, much works needs to be done in the sense that all the efforts of the government must follow a certain distinctive line in order to have better results in the area of money laundry and corruption scandals, which in turn foster hidden fluxes of money which can be used by terrorists.
Finally, concerning the international legal system and its cooperation with the United Nations, it can be said that Argentina was a consistent and reliable member of the organization. In this sense the fact that it has signed twelve conventions related to terrorism and anti-terrorist measures proves a point in considering Argentina an important factor of decision for the Latin American environment. However, the provisions agreed upon must also be respected and implemented. This is why it is important that the government take action in the areas which are most affected by the lack of financial and social support. This statement was agreed upon by the president of Argentina in 2005 when it was considered that "Each of us must act, consistent with past Security Council resolutions to freeze terrorists' assets; to deny terrorists freedom of movement by using effective border controls and secure travel documents; to prevent terrorists from acquiring weapons, including weapons of mass destruction" (America.gov, 2005). However, in order to achieve such a target it important that precise measures of cooperation be taken at the highest level.
Areas of negotiation
Concerning Argentina, its diplomatic targets are consistent with those of the United States and of the coalition for the fight against terrorism. As presented before in the statements of the different ministers of Argentina, the state is willing to cooperate at all the diplomatic, political, and financial levels.
The policies conducted by the Argentinean state target several sectors of the internal order. Thus, on the one hand, there is the political aspect which must be taken into consideration. In this sense, for the success of the cooperation process in the counter terrorist activities, it is essential that the democratic road be open and that no authoritarian rule disputes the supreme role of the Argentinean government. On the other hand, there is the matter of the legal aspects which should evolve…