Army Regulation Safety Motor Pool Hazard Prevention Motor Pool HMMWV (High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle)
The objective of this work in writing is to examine the Army regulation safety motor pool hazard prevention motor pool MHHWV, a high mobility and multipurpose-wheeled vehicle and the importance of a ground guide in the incident of slightly speeding and suddenly stopping six feet away from the ground guide.
The M998 series HMMWV is reported to have a design that meet light-wheeled vehicle requirements of the battlefield of the1980s and forward. The 4X4 11/4 ton vehicle is comprised of a common chassis that accepts various body configurations to accomplish combat, combat support and combat service support roles." (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009) The HMMWV is "a lightweight, high-performance, four-wheel drive, air transportable, and air droppable family of vehicles. The Army identified the need for such a production began on the HMMWV in the fall of 1984. (Inspector General United States Department of Defense, 2010)
The HMMWV losses during Operation Continue Hope and the follow-up mission Operation Restore Hope resulted in the Army developing and procure an armor kit for immediate use in Somalia. The risk reduction vehicle was developed in 2004. This vehicle is a variant of the M1151-model MHHWV and has extensive modifications to the body. This vehicle has a "seminomocoque welded aluminum cab built on a common ECV chassis and is reported to bring about improvement in crew survival through "significant structural improvements to the crew compartment." (Inspector General United States Department of Defense, 2010)
I. Leading Causes of Accidents in the HMMWV
Reported as the leading causes of accidents in the HMMWV army wide are the follow accident causes:
(1) Excessive speed or too fast for conditions;
(2) Failure to control or not paying attention;
(3) Improper turning or over/under steering;
(4) Fatigue or falling asleep at the wheel. (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009)
II. Contributing Factors Resulting in Most Severe Injuries of Death
The two contributing factors that cause the most severe injuries or deaths during accidents are those stated as follows:
(1) Failure to wear seatbelts; and (2) Rollovers. (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009)
Wearing seatbelts is required in both drivers and passengers in the HMMWV by Army Regulation (AR) 385-55. This applies to all vehicles equipped with seat belts however, the stated exception to the use of seatbelts is when the vehicle is involved in deep water fording. (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009, paraphrased) Rollovers despite the wide wheelbase of the HMMWV are stated as "not uncommon." (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009)
When accident reports were analyzed, the facts indicate that "terrain hazards (holes, ditches, steep roadway shoulders and rocks) are second only to excessive speed as a cause of rollovers. (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009) Additionally, sharp turns in sand and gravel at fast rates of speed can easily result in the vehicle rolling over. (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009, paraphrased)
III. Control Measures for Accident Prevention
Stated as control measures that can be used to prevent these types of accidents are those as follow:
(1) Perform through safety briefings that emphasize speed limits and the mandatory use of safety belts;
(2) Place mature, experienced driers with less experienced drivers;
(3) Identify and control hazards through advanced planning and try to ensure down time before and during long missions. (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009)
The control measures that can be used by individual military personnel to assist in preventing rollover accidents are the following:
(1) Get adequate rest when it is available;
(2) Slow down when driving in sand or gravel and do not make sharp, sudden turns. ( Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009)
IV. Risk Management
Risk management is reported to provide "leaders a tool to make smart risk decisions in tactical training and as well it minimizes personnel and equipment losses. Risk management is stated to be "accomplishing the mission with the least risk possible." (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009) Rules that should be remembered about risk-taking are stated to include those as follows: (1) an unnecessary risk should never be accepted; (2) decisions about risks should be made at the level appropriate; and (3) the benefits of risk taking must outweigh the potential costs of the risk. (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009) Risk management includes: (1) identification of the risks; (2) evaluation of the risk; (3) reduction of the risk through elimination of changing things that are unnecessary; (4) make risk decisions and decide which risks are acceptable and which risks are not; (5) initiate controls for the risks that are going to be accepted and attempt reduce the risks; (6) make sure that all personnel who are affected are briefs and the operation supervised. (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009)
Stated as Speed limits for tactical vehicles including HMMWVs are the following limits:
Cities Highways Roads
V. Use of Ground Guides
Ground guides are stated to be used when wheeled and tracked vehicles are being backed. It is stated that ground guides should not stand "between the vehicle being guided and another object where an inadvertent engine surge or momentary loss of vehicle control could cause injury or death." (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009) It is reported that the vehicle driver will stop the vehicle immediately if:
(1) They lose sight of the ground guide;
(2) The ground guide is standing dangerously between the vehicle and another object;
(3) The ground guide will not walk backwards or stand in the vehicle tracks.( (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009)
It is stated that wheeled vehicle drivers must follow procedures for determining clearance when ground guides are not available. In emergencies where a ground guide is not available, the wheeled vehicle drivers are required to:
(2) Walk completely around the vehicle to verify clearance.
(3) Select a ground reference point that can be seen from the cab of the vehicle.
(4) Mount the vehicle and ensure the ground reference point can be seen from the cab of the vehicle.
(5) Sound the horn.
(6) Back to the preselected ground reference point.
(7) Repeat the process, as necessary, until the desired vehicle position is obtained. (Department of Military & Veteran Affairs State Safety Office, 2009)
VI. Importance of Ground Guides
A reading of the role of the individual who performs as a ground guide day or night reports that during both day and night time ground guides assist in the maneuvering of combat vehicles. Standards stated for ground guides are as follows:
"Standards: You have positioned yourself and successfully portrayed each visual hand signals that correctly represents the intended vehicle movement. You have influenced vehicular movement in indicating visual signals of attention, mount, starting the engine, move forward, slow down, right or left turn, move in reverse, open up, close up, increase speed, halt of stop, stop engine, and dismount. You safely employed the visual hand signals for nighttime using a flashlight. There were no injuries to personnel, or damage to vehicle or surroundings." (Headquarters Department of the Army, 2004)
Performance Steps are stated as follows:
1. Make preparations to ground guide a wheeled vehicle.a. Ensure that a 360-degree walk around of the vehicle is done to ensure there are no obstructions that will inhibit the vehicle's movement (applies to crew member, guide, or the driver).
2. Coordinate with driver to ensure the following: (a) That only one person gives hand signals to the driver (if using more than one ground guide). (b) For the driver to immediately stop vehicle if the driver loses sight of the ground guide or flashlight (at night). (c) If hand signals are not understood, the vehicle must stop and signals clarified.(d) To follow the flashlight movements (at night) until the light goes out.
3. Determine best line-of-sight location for ground
4. Does not position as ground guide directly in front of or behind vehicle.
5. Ensure driver knows exact position of all ground guides before movement.
6. Ensure the driver knows to sound horn (if tactically permitted) before backing.
7. Use a blue-screened flashlight to guide vehicle at night.
8. Ensure that vehicle does NOT open either vehicle door while backing vehicle.
9. Reconnoiter the area the vehicle will be traveling through.
a. Ensure area of travel is large enough to accommodate size of vehicle.
b. Ensure path of travel is free of obstacles that would impede movement of both ground guide and vehicle such as:
(i) Deep gullies.
(ii) Fallen trees.
(iii) Submerged areas (unless known to support vehicle travel).