arranged in two parts. The first part discusses the Hierarchy theory, and two-factor theory. Since both theories concentrate on the human motivation, the paper compares and contrasts the two theories to reveal their similarities and differences. The second part of this paper concentrates on the heath and safety issues and the paper demonstrates the safety plan to be implemented at the construction site to reduce work accidents.
Hierarchy Theory is a theory of human motivation introduced by Abraham Maslow. The hierarchy theory reveals motivation and personality, and suggests that people are motivated in order to fulfil their basic needs. Maslow Hierarchy theory is often displayed as pyramid where the most basic needs are displayed at the lowest level of the pyramid. On the other hand, the complex needs are displayed at the top level of the pyramid. According to the hierarchy theory, the most basic needs are the needs for the physical requirements, which include food, water, warmth and sleep. Once people have been able to achieve the lowest level needs, people moved to next level needs, which are employment, safety and security. As people move up the pyramid, the needs become social and psychological. For example, people start seeking for friendship, love and intimacy, and these needs become important. The top level of the pyramid is the personal esteem and feeling of accomplishment. Maslow emphasizes on self-actualization, which is at the top of the pyramid. The self-actualization is the needs to achieve the individual potential, which include creativity, problem solving, and morality. Fig 1 reveals the methods hierarchy theory demonstrates the human needs. (Maslow.1943).
Fig 1: Hierarchy Theory of Human Needs
Two-factor theory is developed by Frederick Herzberg is who believes that two-step approach could be used to understand employee motivation and satisfaction. The hygiene and motivator factors are used to understand the need of employee. Two factor theory uses hygiene factor to explain the needs for business to avoid unpleasant at work. Hygiene factor include:
Company policy and administration
Wages, salaries & other financial remuneration
Quality of supervision
Quality of inter-personal relations
Feelings of job security
Two factor theories also argue that the motivator factor is based on the needs for personal growth. The motivator factor includes:
Opportunity for advancement
Challenging and stimulating work
Sense of personal achievement and personal job growth. (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman 1959).
Fig 2 demonstrates the two-factor theory of hygiene and motivator factor
Fig 2: Two-factor Theory Hygiene factor and Motivator factor
Source: (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman 1959).
To provide greater understanding on the methods the two theories could be used to motivate human at the work environment, the paper provides the similarities and differences between the two models.
Similarities of Herzberg's and Maslow's Models
There are similarities and differences between Herzberg and Maslow's models. Similarity of both models is that both models suggest the need to satisfy employee through motivation. Both models use hierarchical scales, which mean one stage must be fulfilled before moving to another level. They both specify the criteria that motivate people at the work environment that is basic pay and work condition.
Moreover, Herzberg's hygiene factor is similar to the Maslow's Physiological, and Safety. This means both have the same criteria. The Herzberg's motivators idea is similar to the Maslow's Esteem and Self-Actualization needs. Both points to the same criteria and argue that human needs growth recognition, and achievement.
Both theories influence employee performances through motivation.
Differences between Herzberg's and Maslow's Models
Two factor theory
The concepts are based on human need and satisfaction.
The concepts are based on motivation, which include achievement, recognition and growth.
The theory identifies five set of human needs as the basis of theory.
Refer to hygiene factor and motivating factor.
Mostly applicable to the developing or poor countries where money is a motivating factor
Mostly applicable to rich countries where money is a less motivating factor
The model is descriptive in nature
Herzberg theory is perspective in nature.
Workers are mostly motivated in a conducive working environment. The working environment generally affects workers attitude and motivation, and these factors enormous affect productivity and work accuracy. This section provides safety plan at a local construction firm.
Objectives: To implement safety measure and improve workers condition at the site.
Analysis of Work Environment: Analysis of the work environment at the construction firm reveals that there is a need to improve the work environment to motivate workers. The basic amenities such as good lighting and humidity are insufficient at the site, and there is a need to minimize noise, improve temperature, and reorganize work schedule at the site. These measures are critical to enhance safety at the work environment as well as to motivate worker and increase worker's productivity at the site.
SAFETY MEASURE: Safety measure is to provide adequate lighting, humidity, and minimize noise. There is also a need to improve temperature and re-organize work scheduled. These needs are critical to motivate worker at the construction site to improve workers performances. For safety plan at the site, there are basic measures to implement:
Lighting: There is a need to replace lighting at the work site. Lighting affects how people can see. Change from poor lighting to good lighting condition improves accuracy, and neatness at work. There is a need to provide best lighting and diffused lighting from more than one source. Intensity of light affects safety in the work environment. Lights from many source give indirect effect and easier on the eyes. Brighter light is not better because it may be too bright to the eye. The dullest light may cause eyestrain.
The three basic light sources recommended are the fluorescent tubes, filament tubes and natural light. Natural light is at the exterior and is not constant all day. Artificial lighting such as fluorescent and filament are easier to regulate. These lighting is recommended because they produce higher level of indirect lighting at lower costs. Florescent lights usually provide general illumination, and produce less heat. Thus, it is recommended that the site buy fluorescent tubes and filament light to improve lighting at the work place to improve workers safety at the work environment.
Temperature and Humidity
The atmosphere in the work environment could be controlled to maintain a constant temperature and humidity. Thermostats could be used to regulate temperature within a comfort zone of 68 to 74 degrees Fahrenheit. Some piece of Thermostats equipments shut off when the temperature exceeds 90 degree Fahrenheit. Humidity must also be controlled to enhance workers comfort at the site. In the cold season, in-door humidity is often too low. Vendor recommends 70% humidity for workers to be at safety level. Air conditioning is recommended during the heat period and energy efficient building is recommended.
Noise: Sound from noise can cause irritation and distraction, and this may cause accident at the work site. Some common sound distraction is machine, street noise, vibration, noise from heavy equipments, and echoing sound. Steps to reduce noise at the work site are as follows:
Putting noise machine in a separate room or location
Put the specially design noise reducing pads under the machine to reduce noise
Sounding absorbing drapes, wall materials should be installed to lessen the amount of noise deflection.
Work Schedule: Work stress and high workload could lead to work accident. When a workload is too high for workers, workers concentration on the work may decline, and this may lead to workers accident. To reduce accident and enhance worker safety at the site, there is a need to implement the following recommendation:
Work overload should be reduced as much as possible. Worker should be allowed to work for maximum of 10 hours a day and overtime should be paid accordingly.