Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century Term Paper

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Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century

19th Century:

Its funny how paper is never really given importance because of the fact that it is so inexpensive and everywhere, that most of us take it for granted. In this paper, we will look at the making of the paper and how it became one of the most disposable products in the world.

Till the mid-1800's paper was considered an expensive commodity and was available only in individual hand-made sheets. Paper was the size of a papermaking frame that had to be handled by one or two people.

This created two problems, one was to be able to manufacture the paper in that size and the second was to manufacture in high volumes.

Rags, grass and straw were used to manufacture high quality paper. Then came the lower quality paper called cardboards and wall coverings. During the industrial growth of the 1800's, usage of paper grew vastly but also went down because during the civil war, rags were suppose to be collected and saved.

The economics changed drastically when paper was starting to be manufactured from pulp of wood using the papermaking machine called the Fourdrinier machine. This machine helped lower the price of raw materials and allowed paper to be manufactured in high volumes in the form of long rolls. This development took place around the mid-19th century.

In its purest form, paper is very simple and a natural material, although in the beginning it is in the crude form that needs to be refined through various processes. A material such as linen, cotton, or chemically treated wood chips is condensed into a nearly pure form of cellulose fiber. In the mechanical pulping process the fibers are mashed, flattened, and fibrillated in water slurry, the process is known as beating. This produces a liquid pulp, which is supplied wet to the paper-maker or dried in sheets to be reconstituted for use later on.

The invention of the machine implies that a simple duplication of 19th century technology led to the manufacturing of so many types of paper that are easily and abundantly available today. All the important information is preserved in the form of documents using good quality paper.

20th Century:

In the starting of the 20th century, it took nearly 7 to 10 days to travel from Europe to America by sea. However, at the end of the century, people were able to travel on the Concorde that hardly takes 4 hours. The speed and efficiency of air travel have led to social land economic gains all over the world. The astonishing engineering developments shaped the airplane's evolution in the 20th century.

In 1903, the first powered human-piloted flight took Wilbur Wright 120 feet up in the air within 12 seconds. The next flight that Orville Wright flew went 852 feet up in the air and took 59 seconds. Today, the trends are different and people worldwide use airplanes to fly thousands of miles each year for business and otherwise.

The most amazing achievements in aviation were at the beginning of the century, when it was not very common to fly by air. This is the time, when the airline industry was in the process of creation and innovation.

The first few flights were risky and rather daring. Fliers were not called pilots but were called aeronauts. Planes were initially very noisy and the low-flying craft was made of cloth or wood. The cockpit was totally open, making the pilot prone to the weather and other hazards. Fuel was also unrefined and sometimes unreliable, therefore crash landings were not unusual. There were no guidance systems or satellites to warn the pilots about storms and other weather hazards. The initial maps used were directional signals painted on barn roofs. Flying at night was nearly impossible. In the 1920s, rotating beacons were set up at a distance of every50 miles or so across the country to guide planes.

Airports use to be just grassy plains that used wooden shacks for terminals. They have evolved majorly into one of the finest architectural statements. Airports now provide a safe surface for takeoff and landing, they cater to the other needs of the people like having shops, restaurants, and service establishments. Air traffic control systems help to keep the world's pilots connected, taking them safely to and from their destinations. In the United States, airports employ more than a half million people, the aviation industry yield more than 6% of the nation's gross domestic product. The greatest product of this technology is fast paced traveling that we never envisaged before.

This paper reviews the location, architecture and the clientele at London's most expensive shopping store called Harrods.

Harrods visit to London is incomplete and unforgettable without a visit to the most luxurious shopping store in all of England. This luxury retail is simply unbeatable and has a clientele that includes highly exclusive people. This is one place that actually takes into account the importance of a dress code for its clients who like to shop here. Monday to Saturday, the shore remains open from 10am to 7pm. Harrods also has its outlets at various airports in the world and shopping centers to boast of.

With majestic towers rising skywards and never-ending windows filled with the most exquisite and luxurious products in the world, for the affluent in Knightsbridge to buy their clientele includes royalty, aristocracy and celebrities. For them Harrods is simply a part of their everyday living.

For the average class of customers, this department store is where dreams are created and sometimes come true through their selective sales. There are over 5000 people working in over 300 departments to manage the products of the superior world of designer fashion and beautiful jewelry, along with the latest technology and the most tasteful furniture, the most exquisite food and the most wanted toys.

Although Harrods has everything under one roof it is different from other department stores. It started out on a small scale as a grocery shop but within 50 years it changed to become a very store providing more products than an entire block of prime Knightsbridge retail selling space with an international reputation to die for. The people who are working at Harrods feel highly privileged to work at such a high-status address

Knightsbridge is where London's expensive shopping area is. It is shopped at by the rich and famous. A visit to Knightsbridge is simply incomplete without a visit to Harrods - the creme-de-la-creme of department stores in England. Harrods is a store where only those who have loads of money can have a great time. The food hall is nice to visit; a Harrods carrier bag is considered a status symbol. There are lots of other posh shops in this area. The area also houses about 190 restaurants in the vicinity of Harrods.

Harrods is located on the Brompton Road in the Knightsbridge area of Central London. One can easily travel by public transport. Knightsbridge London Underground Station exits very close to the store and is on the Piccadilly Line. London Bus routes C1, 74 & 14 all have stops on the Brompton Road and routes 9, 10, 19, 22, 52, and 137 will all take you to the Knightsbridge area of London. The stops are a short walk from the store. Harrods also has a valet customer car park, located in Brompton Place, which is hardly a 2 minutes walk to the West of the store.

Harrods has been designed according to the new techniques for calculate customer movement patterns in retail environments. The approach was to design a retail environment founded on the principles of robustness, according to the experiential research, which illustrated that store layouts have a direct and systematic influence on circulation patterns and shopping…[continue]

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