Looking at other possibilities, however, the idea of creating a part organic, part mechanical computer holds much promise in the way for developing a human-like AI technology. Human brain processes ad functions that are unique to humans are many, and while every person has different life experiences, perceptions, genetics, and understandings, it is very difficult to understand exactly how they all incorporate themselves into everyday human life and decision-making.
Organic growth technologies would give current AI technologies a hybrid of organic functions as well as mechanical or digital functions (Floreano and Mattiussi, 2008). This is to say that organic computing allows the human brain to grow and learn from experiences as well as store memories wile culling the least used and least useful information. This helps make room for new learning as well as serving to de-clutter the brain itself (Wallach, Franklin, and Allen, 2010). Even these most basic processes are just now beginning to be understood by neuro-scientists and will likely never be fully understood in the near future. However, if these functions re coupled with the mind-bending computational speeds and memory storage capacities of humanity's most technologically advanced AI technologies, thee is room and possibility that a human-like brain structure could emerge, as long as this structure was allowed time to learn and grow from the humble beginnings given to it by its programmers (Floreano and Mattiussi, 2008). Just as the human brain is not created with the information that is eventually stored within it, the organic hybrid AI brain would need sufficient time and experience to understand the world around them in a way to begin to make meaningful human-like decisions (Minsky, 2006). Experience, perhaps, is at the root of the question of how to create a most human-like AI technology.
All of these considerations have been made without mention of emotions, which are currently understood to be uniquely human as well and impossible for machines to understand or experience. While human emotion is a mixture of brain biology and chemistry, it is still impossible for a machine, no matter how complex, to replicate them (Wallach, Franklin, and Allen, 2010). Humans are hard-wired to need other humans, and it is unlikely that machines will play the role of these much-needed companions to the same degree and potential that they already are (Torrance, 2008). Hence other humans will always need humans as long as emotions are unique to humanity.
Chart from (Torrance, 2008).
AI-Based Processes and Technology
Given the understanding that AI technology will likely not evolve to the point of being human-like within a short period of time, there are still plenty of applications where it can be used within the human world to help humans control and interact with their environment. One of the most crucial places where AI technologies have played a role is in the military. Military applications of AI technologies both allow for more casualties to an enemy as well as cut down the number of potential casualties to allies (Thomaz and Breazeal, 2008). This can occur because of recent developments in guided missile and bombs technologies as well as drones and other AI applications. Also, since humans are being replaced in large numbers on the battlefield with AI technologies numbering often in the few, the same jobs and missions can be accomplished without subjecting any humans to the potential for harm (McCarthy, 2007). This has helped create a force multiplier for the militaries that currently employ AI technologies. Their capabilities have been enhanced due to the capacity to carry out warfare from a distance using non-human technologies. However, with these considerations in mind, all the current military-based AI technologies still require human operators and programmers. This is yet another example of how AI technology has allowed humans to become more efficient, but has not overcome the need for humans within the applications themselves.
Another place where AI technologies hold promise is within the medical field (Li and Du, 2008). These technologies have been employed to make extremely difficult procedures much less time-consuming and stressful. Also, when precision is needed, AI technologies like laser-wielding computer and robotic arms have been employed. These and other important AI technologies related to the medical field are important and help human beings become more effective and efficient. However, just as the military AI applications require human masters, the medical world has not yet developed a consistent AI technology that can perform an entire medical procedure without a human being's guidance and presence (Li and Du, 2008). This is partly due to the fact that each patient is different and human anatomy is not as cut and dry or consistent as that of a machines or man-made object.
This is important because it shows that AI technologies will always need to be controlled by human beings. Harking back to the ethical considerations as well, if an operation or procedure that was completely in the hands of AI technology went wrong, the responsibility for the failure would ultimately need to rest on the shoulders of the human programmers or computer scientists (Li and Du, 2008). Machines themselves cannot be blamed for human shortcomings and failures. The potential for humans to fear wrongdoing or malfunctions in a machine responsible for the life or death of a patient is presently too much for humans to handle within the medical realm, and will likely be so for some time.
Human beings are unique creatures even though the human brain is governed by the same physical laws as machines are. The sheer complexity of the human brain prevents the mimicry of such an organism in a singularly AI manner, without organic, chemistry-based, and biological considerations. In these ways, human beings will always be in demand, at least by other humans. However, even if AI technologies that accurately mimic human behavior and thought could be created, the ethical considerations alone would likely prevent full-scale adoption and application of such technologies. Certainty AI technologies have been employed in everyday life and situations for decades, but the need for the uniqueness of human emotion and freewill has not yet been eclipsed. In these ways humans will always be present and part of everyday life for other humans. There are simply some applications where AI technologies cannot perform as well as the human mind no matter how fast they are able to compute and how much memory they boast.
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