Asl the Deaf Community Research Paper

Download this Research Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Research Paper:

ASL the Deaf Community

ASL: The Deaf Community

Although there has been a call for equality for all students with disabilities in the arena of education, the fact is that there are still inequalities that exist for individuals with deafness. It was reported September 23, 2013 that the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) and Joseph B. Espo, attorney with Brown, Golstein & Levy, LLP in Baltimore, Maryland, "filed a lawsuit against the University of Maryland College Park and several of its officials over the university's long-standing and continuing failure to provide captioning of announcements and commentary made over the public address systems during athletic events at Byrd Stadium and the Comcast Center. The complaint was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Maryland." (National Association of the Deaf, 2013, p.1) According to National Association of the Deaf, a new international human rights treaty, and specifically the 'Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) "recognizes the inclusion of sig language and deaf culture in society." (National Association for the Deaf, 2013, p.1) It is related that the CRPD has been ratified in 134 countries since 2006 although it has not been ratified in the United States. In addition, it is reported, "more than 650 U.S. organizations want to change that including the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) and the U.S. International Council on Disabilities (USICD)." (National Association of the Deaf, 2013, p.1)

I. What is Required?

In order for CRPD to take effect in the United States there is a need for a 2/3 super majority vote in the U.S. Senate. The Senate held a vote on the treaty in December of 2012 and the vote was lost by a mere five votes. Organizations that are opposed to international treaties battled against the CRPD with a campaign that was misinforming and this assisted in defeating the treaty in December 2013. The Senate however, has the power to schedule a new vote. (National Association of the Deaf, 2013, p.1)

II. ASL: Difficulties in Education

Difficulties that deaf children face in mainstream education are reported to include: (1) acceptance; (2) communication; and (3) frustration. (Britton, 2004, p. 1) Communication is integral in the deaf child's ability in the areas of their social skills and reading ability as well as the degree of residual hearing that is left and the encouragement provided by teachers and parents in addition to the child's willingness to learn. (Britton, 2004, paraphrased)

III. Power Hierarchy

It is reported that one of the primary components of Deaf Studies program "is an analysis of the power structure in the Deaf community." (Kannapell, n.d., p. 1) Wrong (1979) defined power as follows:

"Power is the capacity of some persons to produce intended and foreseen effects on others." He moves on to differentiate intentional from unintentional influence. Intentional influence may be achieved through authority (a contractual acceptance of another as competent to wield power), manipulation (concealed power, persuasion, argumentation), and force (physical or psychic)." (cited in Kannapell, n.d., p. 1)

According to Foucault, power is best described "…through interaction in a multiplicity of relationships." Kannapell, n.d., p. 1) Power is reported to be such that comes "from below as well as above, in a shifting relationship of force and resistance. Foucault encourages us to study the specifics of power relationships within a particular institution at a particular time." (Kannapell, n.d., p. 1) Kannapell (n.d.) states that power "…is best understood by examining the hierarchy of types of people who are most powerful." (p. 1) Kannapell states this hierarchy as follows:

Hierarchy of Power

white hearing men white hearing women minority hearing men minority hearing women deaf white men deaf white women deaf minority men deaf minority women (Kannapell, n.d., p. 1)

This hierarchy of power informs one that from the viewpoint of those who are deaf that the "most salient feature is hearing status." (Kannapell, n.d., p.1) This hierarchy of power informs that the second and third attributes of power are those of race and gender particularly in the area of politics and economics. Kannapell states that just as with any oppressive type structure that individuals on the bottom of the hierarchy are those who are most aware of how this hierarchy of power operates. (n.d., p.1) This hierarchy of power is informative in regards to two existing hierarchies of power and status in the deaf community represented firstly "in the community of hearing people from the educator's point-of-view" and secondly, represented by status in and access to the Deaf community.

IV. Provisions for Deaf in IDEIA

Cripps and Supalla (2012) in their work entitled "The Power of Spoken Language in Schools and Deaf Students Who Sign" report that the enactment of Public Law 94-42, or the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, amended in 2004, includes 13 specified categories that in which students identified as having disabilities are entitled to receive special education and related services. One of these categories is that of hearing impairment. Raimondo (2010) explains that there are 'special factors' that IDEIA outlines in regards to the language of the deaf child and their communication needs. While IDEIA acknowledges that deaf children have special needs, the provision for the communication and language needs of deaf students "stops short of specifying signed language or ASL." (cited in Cripps and Suppala, 2012, p. 88)

In 1992, the U.S. Department of Education is reported to have set out a guideline that the LRE concept "may not be applicable to deaf students and that a special school (meaning a school for the deaf) may serve as the least restrictive environment for this student population. With this language, the policymakers seemed to acknowledge the strength of schools for the deaf (i.e., being signing schools). However, in practice, an overwhelming majority of deaf students (over 80% of the entire deaf student population in the United States are currently integrated, or 'mainstreamed', rather than being placed in a school for the deaf. The impact of integration is immense as we continue to see a declining enrollment for schools for the deaf (with several closures in recent years." (Cripps and Suppala, 2012, p. 88)

It is reported that researchers have discovered that there is "minimal to nonexistent social interaction between deaf and hearing learners in the same environment. Further, deaf and hard of hearing students in such environments report feeling isolated, lonely, and rejected by their hearing peers." (Reed, 2003, p.223, cited in Cripps and Suppala, 2012, p. 89) Most children are born to parents who are hearing individuals and who generally do not know sign language. In fact, these children make up more than 90% of the deaf student population in the United States. Only the minority of deaf students are born to parents who are also deaf and who have the benefit of parents who know sign language. It is stated that sign language is regularly utilized in the education setting and that deaf students do not have sign language modality in their education that their ability to learn is lost. This is true as well in the area of other communications within the education arena.

V. World Federation of the Deaf

The World Federation of the Deaf is the international non-governmental organization that represents deaf individuals throughout the world. The WFD is a non-profit organization that works for equal opportunity and human rights for those who are deaf and promotes the right of those who are deaf to use sign language in accessing education, information and other areas within their life. Deaf people are able through these tenants to achieve equality in the area of education and all human rights. The WFD has as its proprieties the following:

The human rights of Deaf people and the abolishment of discrimination against Deaf communities and sign languages.

Deaf education.

Strengthening associations of Deaf people, and assisting in the establishment of associations where none currently exists.

Strengthening regional work and cooperation. (WFD, 2013, p.1 )

VI. What is the Delay?

The question begs to be asked as to what is the delay in the U.S. educational system in the provisioning to deaf students of communication needs and specifically in the case of captioning of announcements within schools and universities in order to assist deaf students in their educational process? The impact of politics on the education of deaf students is horrendous and without question something that should not be allowed within a democracy. There are those who hotly oppose the U.S. entering into international treaties however, what can be lost by enabling deaf students in their educational attainment?

Summary and Conclusion

Politics has historically and traditionally affected educational provisions and this is the case in terms of captioning for the deaf in schools and universities. However, this is case where common sense should be the guiding factor in the decision to enact legislation requiring captioning of information and communication in schools and universities. For this reason the National Association for the Deaf has rightly filed a suit in this…[continue]

Cite This Research Paper:

"Asl The Deaf Community" (2013, October 26) Retrieved December 11, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/asl-the-deaf-community-125601

"Asl The Deaf Community" 26 October 2013. Web.11 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/asl-the-deaf-community-125601>

"Asl The Deaf Community", 26 October 2013, Accessed.11 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/asl-the-deaf-community-125601

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Deaf Community and Its Need

    Equally destructive is the attitude that communicating with the Deaf person may involve more time and effort than one wishes to expend" (Zieziula, 1998, p. 193). Moreover, and perhaps one of the most important challenges related to this issue, a large percentage of deaf individuals do not trust the hearing society. "Historically, the dominant hearing culture has relegated deaf people to social categories such as "handicapped" and "outsider." The history

  • Deaf Cultures and Communities Many

    These churches include the Pilgrim Lutheran Church of the Deaf, International Deaf Mission, Los Angeles Deaf Church., Holy Angeles Catholic Church of the Deaf and the Grace Bible Church of the Deaf, to mention a few. There is also a presence of the Jewish deaf community. When it comes to education, the Los Angeles area has a sizable program at the California State University Northridge with a National Center

  • Special Education Deaf Culture Deaf

    Deaf individuality itself is highly valued in the Deaf community. Members seem to concur that hearing people can never completely obtain that identity and become an experienced member of the deaf community. Even with deaf parents and a native grasp of ASL the hearing person will have missed the familiarity of growing up deaf, including residential school. For a lot of members of the deaf community, speech and thinking like

  • Multi Cultural Issues in Deaf Education

    "Co-enrolled classrooms," they advise, "represent a promising additional possibility for increasing student social access to peers, as well as increasing achievement. A co-enrolled classroom typically consists of an approximately 2:1 ratio of hearing and Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing (DHH) students. A team of two teachers, a general education teacher and a teacher of DHH students, collaborate to provide instruction. In many CE classrooms, the teachers and students frequently use both

  • Sign Language and Deaf Culture

    There is "evidence that deaf children benefit from early exposure to sign language points to the need for in-depth sign language training for parents and other caregivers, with special attention to underserved populations such as those in rural areas," (Marschuck 2001 p 9). Parents should not rely on external schools at later developmental stages, when the damage to the child's cognitive and linguistic abilities could have already been done. Chomsky's

  • Rights and Interests of Deaf

    As a part of its responsibility to monitor federal agency compliance with Section 501, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) collects and compiles data regarding agencies' hiring and advancement of workers with disabilities. At the time of hiring, federal agencies provide employees the opportunity to self-disclose that they have a disability, on a Standard Form 256 (SF-256); the numbers of people who so identify are reported to the EEOC.

  • American Sign Language and Gallaudet University

    American Sign Language and Gallaudet Gallaudet University is a college designed for the education of the deaf and hard of hearing. All of the programs are designed for the advancement of the deaf community. The majority of students and faculty are themselves deaf or hard of hearing, although a limited number of students without these disabilities are allowed into the school each year. The university began in 1857 when the 34th Congress


Read Full Research Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved