Biology Laboratory Report Term Paper

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Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including the Monera, the Protista (Protoctista), the Fungi, the Plantae, and the Animalia. Each kingdom is further subdivided into separate phyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into phyla, while "plants" are subdivided into divisions.

Kingdom of Protista

Brown Alga

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Protista

Division

Heterokontophyta

Phaeophyceae

Orders

Dictyotales

Desmerestiales

Fucales

Laminariales (kelps) etc.

The Brown algae are a large group of multi-cellular algae, including various sorts of seaweed. Their distinctive greenish-brown color comes from the pigment fucoxanthin. Well-known members include kelps and bladder wrack. Genetic studies show their closest relatives are the yellow-green algae.

Red Alga

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Protista

Phylum

Rhodophyta

Classes

Florideophyceae

Bangiophyceae

Cyanidiophyceae

The red algae (Rhodophyta) are a large group of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Most of the coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building reefs, belong here. Red algae such as dulse and nori are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisine and are used to make certain other products like agar and food additives.

Kingdom Fungi

A. Mushroom

a) Agaricales

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Fungi

Division

Basidiomycota

Class

Homobasidiomycetes

Order

Agaricales

Agarics (also known as "gilled mushrooms") are one of the most familiar types of mushrooms. The order Agaricales has about 4.000 species, or one fourth of all known homobasidiomycetes. They range from the deadly destroying angel to the common button mushrooms, from the hallucinogenic Fly agaric to the bioluminecents Jack-O-Lantern mushroom.

b) Boletales

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Fungi

Division

Basidiomycota

Class

Homobasidiomycetes

Order

Boletales

The best known members of Boletales are mushrooms characterized by holding their spores in a spongy mass of vertical tubes (pores) on the underside of the mushroom, instead of on gills. Boletes belong to the botanical families Boletaceae and Gyroporacaea.

The order also includes some gilled mushrooms (Paxillus, Gomphidius) which have the same flesh texture as the Boletes, spore-bearing tissue which is also easily separable from the cap, and similar microscopic characteristics of spores and cystidia.

The order Boletales has about 70 species (0.4% of the described homobasidiomycetes).

B. Bracket Fungi

Bracket fungi, or shelf fungus, are fungi notable for bearing fruiting bodies (conk) as or in a "bracket": a grouping of individual mushroom caps that lie in a close planar grouping of separate or interconnected horizontal rows. Brackets can range from only a single row of a few caps, to dozens of rows of caps that can weigh several hundred pounds. Many types of bracket fungi are polypores.

Examples of bracket fungi include the Birch Bracket and the Beefsteak Fungus.

a) Birch Bracket

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Fungi

Phylum

Basidiomycota

Class

Homobasidiomycetes

Order

Polyporales

Family

Fomitopsidaceae

Genus

Piptoporus

Species

Betulinus

Binomial name

Piptoporus betulinus

Birch Bracket (Piptoporus betulinus - also known as Razor Strop) is one of the commonest polyporous bracket fungi growing almost exclusively on birch, as the name suggests. The brackets burst out from the bark of the tree, and the fruit bodies can last for several years. In the past it was used as both a medicine and as tinder. It's an edible mushroom, with a bitter taste and a strong, pleasant odor.

It is a necrotrophic

They are pale, with a smooth grayish-brown top surface, with the underside a creamy white and with hundreds of pores that contain the b) Beefsteak fungus

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Fungi

Phylum

Basidiomycota

Class

Homobasidiomycetes

Order

Agaricales

Family

Fistulinaceae

Genus

Fistulina

Species

Hepatica

Binomial name

Fistulina hepatica

The Beefsteak Fungus (Fistulina hepatica) is an unusual bracket fungus that is most commonly seen in Britain, but can be found in North America, Australia and the rest of the Europe. It is sometimes called the Beefsteak Polypore or the Ox Tongue. As its name suggests, it looks remarkably similar to a slab of raw meat. It has been used as a meat substitute in the past, and can still be found in some French markets. It has a sour, slightly acidic taste.

The shape resembles a large tongue, and it is rough-surfaced with a reddish-brown color. The spores are released from minute pores on the creamy-white underside of the fruit body. A younger Beefsteak Fungus is a pinkish-red color, and it darkens with age. It bleeds a dull red juice when cut, and the cut flesh further resembles meat.

Kingdom of Plantae

A. Vascular Plant

Horsetail

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Plantae

Division

Equisetophyta

Class

Equisetopsida

Order

Equisetales

Family

Equisetaceae

Genus

Equisetum

The horsetails comprise 15 species of plants in the genus Equisetum. This genus is the only one in the family Equisetaceae, which in turn is the only family in the order Equisetales and the class Equisetopsida. This class is now usually placed as the sole member of the Division Equisetophyta, though some authorities place it instead in the Division Tracheophyta or Archeophyta. The plants in the genus Equisetum are considered fern allies. Other classes and orders of Equisetophyta are known from the fossil record, where they were important members of the world flora during the Carboniferous period.

B. Non-vascular Plant

Hornwort

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Plantae

Division

Bryophyta

Class

Anthocerotae

Orders

Anthocerotales

Nothothylales

Botanical name

Ceratophyllum demersum

Hornworts (or horned liverworts) are a group of non-vascular plants comprising the class Anthocerotae. Some botanists classify these plants in the Division Anthocerophyta. The common name refers to the elongated capsules (sporangia) that resemble horns.

Hornworts possess a basal meristem and contain just one chloroplast per cell. Unlike other bryophytes, the hornworts have true stomata. The green plant body of a hornwort is the gametophyte plant. The horn-like capsule is the sporophyte, growing from an archegonium embedded deep in the gametophyte thallus.

C. Gymnosperms

Conifer

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Plantae

Division

Pinophyta

Class

Gymnosperma

Order

Coniferales

A conifer is a type of tree or shrub characterized by needle-like leaves and bearing reproductive structures called cones. Conifers were once classified as an order (Order Coniferales) within the Class Gymnospermae. In the modern classification scheme, the order has been raised to that of a phylum or division. The rules of taxonomic nomenclature require that taxa bear the name of the type genus (in this case Pinus). Thus, the correct name becomes Division Pinophyta, though conifer remains a widely used common name for plants in this division.

D. Angiosperms

Flowering plant

Scientific Classifications

Kingdom

Plantae

Division

Magnoliophyta

Classes

Magnoliopsida

Liliopsida

The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed.

Kingdom of Animalia

Here are some phyla of animal kingdom:

A. Phylum Mollusca

a) Snail

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Gastropoda

The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. Other gastropods, which lack a conspicuous shell, are commonly called slugs, and are scattered throughout groups that primarily include snails. Snails are found in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments. While most people are familiar with only terrestrial snails, the majority of snails are not terrestrial. Snails with lungs belong to the group Pulmonata while those with gills belong to the Paraphyletic group.

b) Octopus

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Cephalopoda

Order

Octopoda

The octopus is a cephalopod of the order Octopoda that inhabits many diverse regions of the ocean, especially coral reefs. The term may also refer to only those creatures in the genus octopus. In the larger sense, there are 289 different octopus species, which is over one-third the total numbers of cephalopod species.

B. Phylum Anthropoda

Phylum Anthropoda are animal that has jointed legs and no spine. This includes most, if not all, of the animals we commonly call "bugs" as well as the crustaceans.

Example of this phylum is the Rove Beetle.

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Staphylinidae

The rove beetles are a large family (Staphylinidae) of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra that leave more than half of their abdomens exposed. Sizes range from 1 to 35 mm (1.5 inches), with most in the 2-8 mm range, and the form is generally elongate. Colors range from yellow to reddish-brown to brown to black. The antennae are usually 11 segments and filiform, with moderate clubbing in some genera. The abdomen may be very long and flexible, and some types of rove beetles superficially resemble earwigs.

C. Phylum Annelida

Earthworm

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Clitellata

Order

Haplotaxida

Genus

Lumbricus

Species

Terrestris

Earthworm is the common reference for the larger members of the Oligochaeta in the phylum Annelida. In classical systems they were placed in the order Opisthopora, on the basis of the male pores opening to the outside of body posterior to the female pores, even though the male segments are anterior to the female. Cladistic studies have supported placing them instead in the Haplotaxida, which also includes the family Haplotaxidae. Folk names for earthworm include dew-worm and angleworm.

D. Phylum Nematoda

Roundworm

Scientific Classification

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Nematoda

Class

Adenophorea

Secernentea

The…[continue]

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