Constructive attitudes towards work, leisure, time and change, set apart organizational models of attainment and enthusiasm, individualism as well as realization of self, and being humanistic as well as helpful that result in constructive culture that urges communications with individuals and strategies to assignments which will allow the employees to fulfill satisfaction needs of a higher plane and would bring about changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006)
As opposed to this, defensive attitudes to work, leisure and time are typified by looking for support and unanimity, being traditional and compliant, and being reliable and submissive that result in defensive culture. Defensive cultures support or completely need communication with individuals in manners that will not endanger individual safety and will not lead to changes. (Aarons; Sawitzky, 2006) Further, family, social mobility and religion are especially more vibrant that show conventional model of ancestry following and notions of family structure, as also modifications ushered by religious belief as also migration and transforming financial situations. Religion and family enjoins a pivotal position in the organization of social, political, as well as cultural life, and controls the relationship among people and their bodily and spiritual atmosphere and thereby shape culture. (Falola; Salm, 2002) g. What influence does corporate / personal verbal and non-verbal Communications have on cultural understanding?
In majority of the cultures, verbal as well as non-verbal forms of communication performs a significant part, occasionally to get along and strengthen linguistic symbols and often as an alternative for words that have a bearing on cultural understanding. (Te, n. d.) Behavior that might not be unpleasant in the country of one's origin might be considered as such in overseas business enterprises. The five most vital differences identified are urgency and articulateness, individualism and collectiveness, the impact of masculinity, the power gap within the culture, and the variations among high and low-context cultures. (Culture and Non-Verbal Communication, n. d.)
We can now understand the non-verbal communication differences which bring about the differences between Vietnamese culture and American culture. The smile, that is occasionally inscrutable to the American viewer, constitutes a non-verbal symbol communicating a sense of reverence in the culture of Vietnam. In case of Vietnamese people, the smile is an apposite reaction in majority of the circumstances wherein verbal expression is not required or not correct. It is uttered as an alternative for "I'm sorry," "Thank you" or "Hi!" It must be remembered that in case of some feelings, the culture of Vietnam fancies non-verbal communications whereas American culture tends to make use of verbal communication. In case of ordinary and unceremonious situations, sense of gratitude or confession are not articulated through verbal expression like "thank you" or "I'm sorry" rather by non-verbal, silence or through a smile. In accordance with the Vietnamese culture, a spoken expression of thanks in this situation is considered as an absence of humility from the individual who is at the receiving end of the accolade. Due to the variation in the mediums to articulate the sense of understanding or confession in the two cultures, misinterpretations have happened. (Te, n. d.) Through the identification and amending for cultural variations which is existent throughout the world, a person is able to attain business success overseas. (Culture and Non-Verbal Communication, n. d.) h. What impact does the physical environment have on culture?
An organization's physical environment and which it interacts, is an occasionally ignored matter. (Hartman, 2002) Acquired culture is akin to a lens which cleans all the information that we recognize by our senses; sensory information permeates by this lens of culture and is cleaned or understood, into an identifiable model which has a significance. Our viewpoint with respect to the physical environment enveloping us is a sound instance of this. The equal physical object or environmental aspect while seen by various cultural filters as a symbol can possess different significance. The manner in which we recognize and make meaning of the physical world surrounding us can impact the system of meanings that comprise culture. (Culture and the Physical Environment: Introduction, n. d.) the correlation between the physical environment as well as behaviors as also an audit record permits an enterprise to investigate its environment from a strategic outlook so as to ally its environment with its culture, image, accepted behaviors, and anticipated results. (Hartman, 2002) i. How are education and technology linked to culture?
The espousal of technology such as the internet communication by the popular culture is a symbol of things to emerge. Individuals use this technology, to understand meaning of identities and cultures in a transforming world. The rising influence which the Internet puts on our culture is even harder to overlook. Initiate a term project by undertaking some research, and one will possibly discover that the college library has almost dumped card catalog and in its place a faster, more space saving electronic system has been installed which can be accessible from one's hostel room or house. Approach your class buddies and enquire from them in case they or someone that they are familiar with has ever made acquaintances or met on a date with somebody online and it becomes almost certain they will show a friend or more. Instead of having to look beyond than the world surrounding you, you in all probability will discover the ever growing impact of the most popular technology such as the Internet in the spheres of economics, education as well as personal relationships, among others. (Smith; Wood, 2005)
Further one needs to understand the link between education and culture. Education can have its impact on culture. Gain of education can lead to changes being brought about in the cultural value systems and thinking. Education can help to avoid the wrong cultural values which are being upheld. Further a gain in education and knowledge about the culture of another country where an international company intends to invest would enable the company to correctly make strategies in its entry into that country.
j. How does the mass media shape culture, public opinion, marketing and advertising?
There are social, cultural, as well as psychological impacts of the usage of media as well as its. The cultural values of a society can undergo changes as a result of the influence of the media. Further, media has the potential to influence public opinion that is a collective agreement regarding issues of political problems that has developed in the path of informed deliberations (Perse, 2001) Media enables people to form opinions on various issues of national and international importance, on whether to buy a product or not and so on. Media has been used by several companies in marketing their products through way of advertisements. And people who see these advertisements which are being shown on the media several times feel the desire to purchase these products. Media can shape culture, public opinion, marketing and advertising and it could be understood by a study of total of 290 Japanese college students who were being interviewed in the year 2002 to promote the author's understanding of the flow of the cultural commodities between Korea as well as Japan and the influence of their usage. The study by Sora Park revealed that Japanese students' internal media application absolutely impacted their plans to buy Korean brands as their coming into contact with the Korean culture impacted their idea of Korea substantially. (Park, 2005) k. What positive and negative impact does politics and a countries legal systems have on international companies?
A vital responsibility encountering the global companies across the world in present times those who are keen to make investment in an overseas country is with regard to the political stability as well as administrative reforms which prevail in the country. In case the governmental administration is unable to launch speedy reforms in consonance with the urgent business requirements, there would not be any interest for international companies to invest in the foreign country. A fraught economy due to the political disorder such as problematic Weimar Republic in Germany, the disintegration of the Soviet Bloc, the frequent examples of chaos in South America, the ideological and political gap in Iraq following the passing away of the Ba'th and Saddam etc. are unable to draw foreign investments. A speedier rate of bettering economic situations through a stable political system having sound political leadership places a strong calming impact on attracting foreign investment. If there are frequent breakdowns of government and absence of peace and law and order problems in a country, then companies wanting to invest in a foreign country would not be interested to go ahead with their plans. (Al-Nakeeb, 2003) Therefore there will be scanty hopefulness in case of global companies desiring to invest in case the political environment of the nation becomes inappropriate for making investments.
Stability is the highest ranked agenda for majority of the international companies desiring to invest. In the legal sphere, stability is linked with a legal system…