Cardiac Cycle: Diastole and Systole Phases and Heart Disease
The objective of the research in this study is to examine the cardiac cycle from the anatomy and physiology perspective. Toward this end, literature in this area of inquiry, which for the purpose of this study is the cardiac cycle, is examined and reported.
Two Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
The work of Klabunde reports that the single cycle of cardiac activity may be divided into two primary phases stated to be those of: (1) the diastole phase; and (2) the systole phase. (Klabunde, 2012, p.1, p.1) Diastole is representative of the span of time when the "ventricles are relaxed…blood is passively flowing from the left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) into the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV), respectively." (Klabunde, 2012, p.1) The mitral and triscuspid or atrioventircular valves are reported to "separate the atria from the ventricles and to contain the blood flow. The right atrium is reported to receive the venous blood from the body via the superior vena cava (SVC) and inferior vena cava (IVC). The left atrium is reported in the work of Klabunde (2012) to be in receipt of the blood that is oxygenated via the lungs through four pulmonary veins entering the left atrium. When the diastole phase ends, both the left atria and the right atria, are reported to contract propelling more blood into the both the right and left ventricles.
The second phase of the cardiac cycle is the systole stage which is representative of the time "during which the left and right ventricles contract and eject blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery, respectively." (Klabunde, 2012, p.1) According to Klabunde, during the systole phase "…the aortic and pulmonic valves open to permit ejection into the aorta and pulmonary artery. The atrioventricular valves are closed during systole, therefore no blood is entering the ventricles; however, blood continues to enter the atria though the vena cavae and pulmonary veins." (2012, p.1)
II. Analysis of the Systole and Diastole
In order to conduct an analysis of the systole and diastole phases of the cardiac cycle, the cycle is divided into seven phases. Phase 1 begins with the P. wave of the electrocardiogram representing atrial depolarization, or the last phase of diastole. (Klabunde, 2012, paraphrased) Phases two through four represent systole and phases five through seven are reported to represent "early and mid-diastole. The final phase of the cardiac cycle is reported to end at the beginning of the following P. wave starting a new cycle. The seven stated phases in this analysis include the following stated phases: (1) atrial contraction; (2) isovolumetric contraction; (3) rapid ejection; (4) reduced ejection; (5) isovolumetric relaxation; (6) rapid filling; and (7) reduced filling. (Klabunde, 2012, p.1)
III. Diagnosis and Treatment of Abnormal Cardiac Activation on Cardiac Function
Resulting from abnormal cardiac activation on cardiac function are a variety of heart associated disorders including that known as congestive heart failure, as well as what is known as a heart murmur. (Limacher, 2004, Fukuta, and Little, 2008) The diastole and systole cardiac phase analysis assists the practitioner in understanding precisely what functions in the heart are affected and what treatment can be applied to maintain the health of the individual with cardiac phase disruption related disease.
There are layers of tissue in the heart including the endocardium, myocardium, and pericardium. Pericardium tissues are formed by the visceral peridardium, parietal pericardium and the pericardial fluid. The arteries of the heart are: (1) elastic arteries; (2) muscular arteries; and (3) arterioles. The elastic arteries are described as having thick walls near the heart, the aorta and its major branches. It is reported that large lumen enable low-resistance conduction of blood and that elastic is contained in all three tunics. The elastic arteries are reported to "withstand and smooth out large blood pressure fluctuations" and to "allow blood to flow fairly continuously through the body." (Chute, 2012, p.1) The muscular arteries are described as "distal to elastic arteries and to be those which deliver the blood to the organs of the body. These arteries have "thick tunic media with more smooth muscle and less elastic tissue and are active in vasoconstriction." (Chute, 2012, p.1) The arterioles…