242). This approach to decision making in public administration was thought to result in improved policies since the approach was well suited to the pluralist environment in which these decisions were being made and provided opportunities for alternative views to be advanced. The incremental model as "took into account the limitations of human cognitive capacities and the costs of acquiring information" (Utter & Lockhart, 2002, p. 242).
Lindblom, C.E. (1959, Spring). The science of 'muddling through.' Public Administration
Review, 19, 79-88 in Stevens at 15.
Stevens, J.B. (1993). The economics of collective choice. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Utter, G.H. & Lockhart, C. (2002). American political scientists: A dictionary. Westport, CT:
Unit II Assessment.
Marble cake federalism
Congressional Budget Office
Pluralism and Calvinism
Federal system of government
"Why can't the citizens of the states just keep their money rather than paying it to the federal government so they can return it in grants and services?"
"A clear national direction without negotiation or conflict with subnational states."
Both b and c
What is the difference between philanthropy and charity? Use examples from private and non-profit sectors.
Although there is some overlap between the usages of these two terms, that are some important distinctions as well, particularly from a legal perspective. According to Shafritz (1998), "The usual inclusive contemporary definition of philanthropy is values, organizations, and practices that entail voluntary action to achieve some vision of the public good or the private production of public goods. Voluntary action includes voluntary giving, voluntary association, and voluntary service" (p. 1654). Emphasizing that philanthropy is an umbrella term that encompasses a number of subjects, Shafritz emphasizes that philanthropic initiatives can be viewed as charity. In this regard, Shafritz notes that philanthropy is "Voluntary giving, voluntary serving, and voluntary association to achieve some vision of the public good; includes charity, patronage, and civil society" (p. 1654). By slight contrast, Black's Law Dictionary (1991) notes that "in a legal sense, charity includes every gift for a general public use, to be applied consistent with existing laws for benefits for an indefinite number of persons and designed to benefit them from an educational, religious, moral, physical, or social standpoint" (p. 233). The true distinction between these two terms can be found in Shafritz's observation that, "Relief, of course, is charity, it is meant directly to alleviate the suffering of others. The narrow definition of philanthropy is that the aim of philanthropy is to affect the root causes of suffering, whether they lie in skills, health, distribution of income or political clout" (p. 1655).
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Shafritz, J.M. (1998). International encyclopedia of public policy and administration. Boulder,
CO: Westview Press.
Explain the concept of picket fence federalism, using an example from local government in your nearest city as a model.
According to Hanson (1998), "Adherents to picket fence federalism contend that the most important components of the federal system are the various functional bureaucracies, not the national, state, or local governments" (p. 24). From this perspective, the "pickets" of the governmental fence (e.g., the national, state, and local governments) are frequently too fragmented to provide the level of coordination needed to effect meaningful action at the local level (Hanson, 1998). A good example of how this approach has been used in New Brunswick, New Jersey is the implementation of so-called "Special Improvement Districts" (also known as Business Improvement Districts) that are described by the municipality as being "Self-help ventures organized by property owners and local governments to identify and develop defined areas of cities where a more successful and profitable business climate is needed" (Special improvement districts, 2009, p. 1). These districts, which are referred to by the acronym "SID," are managed by private agents who coordinates commercial promotional activities, as well as identifying opportunities for improving the security and maintenance services for existing businesses in their districts (Special improvement districts, 2009). According to the city's official Web site at http://www.newbrunswick.com, "The law permits property owners and businesses in the specified district to organize and assess themselves to pay for the services that…