Colonies and Then the United Term Paper

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It is also believed by some that there are particular parts of the country, population areas or other niches where immigration is more problematic than others. However, studies have also found this to mostly untrue. Even in particular areas of the economy, the evidence of a negative effect of immigrants on natives is limited. An overview of studies by Passel of the Urban Institute (1994) found that "The majority find no more evidence of displacement than is revealed by the aggregate data. Even studies of more highly skilled occupations, (e.g., registered nurses), find no strong evidence of displacement."

In the future, in fact, the immigrant population will be even more advantageous to the American labor market. Immigrants will fill niches at the high and low ends of the spectrum. As the U.S. population continues to age, many skilled workers and professionals will retire and leave openings for employers to fill. Meanwhile, as openings in the skilled professions become of greater interest, natives will continue furthering their levels of education and discarding lower skilled jobs. (Today, only fewer than 10% of native-born Americans have not completed high school.) This will increase gaps at the lower end of the job market, especially in health care, hospitality, and other service jobs needed for aging adults.

Thus, it appears from private and government studies to date that the myth about immigrants taking native jobs is unfounded. Those who wish to cut back the number of individuals entering the United States should consider the facts before making broad statements that are incorrect.

References

Bean, F., E. Telles, and B. Lowell. "Undocumented migration to the United States: perceptions and evidence." Population and Development Review. 13.4: (1987), 676-90.

Brookings Institute. Immigrants meet the area's labor needs.

Issue No. 15: (September 2000), Washington,.D.C.

Center for Governmental Services at Auburn University. 2004, October.

Enchautegui, Maria E. "The Effect of Immigration on the Wages and Employment of Black Males," Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. 17: (1993)

Farley, R. Increasing Interracial Marriage: Trends Revealed by the Census and Census Bureau Surveys.

Frazelle, Brian. "The Truth about Immigrants: Xenophobia existed in early America."

Houston Catholic Worker, 19.7: (1999)

Hirschman, Charles, Richard Alba, and Reynolds Farley. "The Meaning and Measurement of Race in the U.S. Census: Glimpses into the Future." Demography 37 (2000): 381-393

Passel, Jeffrey S. Immigrants and Taxes: A Reappraisal of Huddle's 'The Cost of Immigration', Washington, D.C. The Urban Institute, 1994.

Smith, James P, and Bary Edmonston, eds. The New Americans. Washington, D.C. National Research Council., 1997.

Vedder, Richard, Lowell Gallaway, and Stephen Moore. Immigration and Unemployment: New Evidence. Arlington, VA: Alexis de Tocqueville Institution,

Outline

Introduction: Myth of taking jobs away -- thesis statement

Poll conducted in Alabama regarding immigrants taking jobs away a. random telephone poll of 1,012 residents

B. 34% of those surveyed "strongly agree" and 23% "somewhat agree" that immigrants are taking this employment

C. 34% "strongly disagree" and 21% "somewhat disagree" that immigrants bring required skills to state.

D. 10% stated they have seen immigrants making constructive contributions

E. 42% accuse immigrants for community issues

F.56% feel Alabama should not give immigrants social welfare assistance.

III. Bean, Telles and Lowell results low-skill labor pool with a tendency to fill jobs native workers disdain" immigrants cause minor enhancements in jobs and pay of natives by providing goods and services at lower costs.

A employment keeps continuation of supervisory positions for natives

D. "Studies of labor market impact have found that the effects of immigrants both legal and undocumented) on the wages and earnings of other labor force groups are either nonexistent or small (and sometimes positive)"

IV. Julian Simon quote on impact on product and services chain.

V. Brookings Institute information on entrepreneurial contribution

A. Silicon Valley companies begun by Chinese and Indian immigrants generated more than $19.5 billion in sales and nearly 73,000 jobs in 2000

VI. Studies by Vedder, Gallaway, and Moore/Brookings regarding unemployment

A. States with high immigration experience low unemployment.

B. largest wave of immigration to U.S. since 1900s had lowest national unemployment rate and fastest economic growth.

VII. National Council immigration allows domestic workers to be more productive specializing in producing goods that are more efficient some groups of U.S. residents that gain more than others from immigration l. gainers --domestic, higher skilled workers and owners of capital with rising wages.

2. losers -- less-skilled domestic workers who compete with immigrants and whose wages will fall.

VIII. Impact of immigration on African-Americans

Enchautegui "The results show that in the 1980s black men were not doing worse in areas of high immigration than in other areas and that their…[continue]

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