Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Coping Styles in Middle Aged Stroke Survivors
Extant literature has been dedicated to coping styles in middle aged stroke survivors. Rochette et al. (2006) conducted a study to evaluate the adaptation process, participation as well as depression over a period of six moths in souses and fists-stroke individuals. In their study they described the changes in the process of adaptation (both coping and appraisal) within six months after the very fist stroke with the aim of identify the domains of the process of adaptation that is related to the participation as well as the depressive symptoms for the affected persons and their spouses. The study design employed by Rochette et al. (2006) was a descriptive longitudinal approach that was conducted over the initial six months after the first-stroke. Data was collected from two groups at three different times; in the initial two weeks after stroke (T1) and then after three months (T2) and then again after six months post stroke (T3). The participants in the study were two distinct groups the first one comprised of individuals who were affected by the very first instance of stroke and the second group comprised of spouses of people who were affected by the first stroke. In this study, the inclusion criteria were; having had a first stroke or being the spouse of an individual who had a fists stroke. The participants must also have been 18 years or older and must have provided informed consent. Individuals with severe cognitive as well as communication problems as indicated by clinical judgment were excluded from the study. The measures in the study were the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM) for the appraisal process, Revised Ways of Coping Questionnaire (RWCQ) for the coping strategies and Assessment of Life Habits (LIFE-H) for the participation. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was also used for gauging depressive symptoms. The results indicated that apprqaisal as well as coping strategies vary / change over time. The initial adaptation to stroke can therefore be concluded to be important in the prediction of the participation level as well as the prediction of depressive symptoms within six months after stroke for the affected people and their spouses.
Darlington et al. (2007) conducted a study on the coping strategies as important determinants of the stroke patient's quality of life. The study was conducted against a backdrop of knowledge that Quality of life (QoL) is often reduced for stroke patients while coping strategies have been long suggested to be determinants of QoL. Therefore the relationship between coping and Quality of Life has only been investigated in small-scale cross-sectional studies. symptoms within six months after stroke for the affected people and their spouses. Darlington et al. (2007) therefore set out to examine this important correlation in a longitudinal setup. The method used in this study involved the interviewing of stroke patients who were discharged home at four different points. These were; just prior to discharge (T1), two months after discharge (T2), two months after discharge (T3) and between nine and twelve months after discharge (T4). The Quality of Life was then measured by means of EQ-5D index score as well as by SF-36 utility score. Coping was then expressed using the flexible goal adjustment and tenacious goal pursuit. Modified Rankin scale was then appropriately assessed as a true measure of the patient's general functioning. The results indicated that a higher level of the tenacious goal pursuit and flexible goal pursuit were generally associated with averagely higher levels Quality of Life. A large number of the patients suffered from chronic cases of ischemic stroke (close to 79%). This study generally indicated that coping is a very important determinant of Quality of Life, but this is only true id applied close to five months after the patient has been discharged. Before the expiry of the five months, the Quality of Life of stroke patients is determined by the level of general functioning. In summary, this study indicated that coping strategies are an important determinant of quality of life for stroke patients.
Eccles, House and Peter (1999) also conducted study on the psychological as well as self-reported coping for stroke survivors having and lacking emotionalism.
The stud y indicated that post-stroke emotionalism is very common and occurs in between ten and twenty percent of a given community sample. The study also indicated that other psychological factors in the cause of emotionalism or its maintenance have never been studied. Extant literature indicates that most research has been concentrated on the stroke lesion's location. The authors suggested that one of the reasons for this form of neglect of the people cannot distinguish between psychological crying, emotionalism and laughing. As a consequence, all of the emotionality disorders after experiencing stroke are rather stereotypes as related to a large damage to the brain or to be meaningless psychologically.The main aim of their study was therefore to determine if indeed there is a difference between patients with and without emotionalism in regard to their psychological reflections and also in their self-reported coping strategies.
One of the conditions that affects stroke patients is post-traumatic stress syndrome and it is characterized by the recurrent episodes of rather intrusive as well as uncontrollable peaks of emotions.
The participants in this study were all adults who had been admitted into the local general hospitals to be treated after stroke episodes. They were interviewed within a period of 1 month post admission for stroke. The exclusion criteria for the study were those in poor health, those with impaired cognitive abilities, those with communication difficulties as well as those who failed to give consent. All of the participant completed a widely known and standardized distress measure in the name of the general health questionnaire, GHQ-124, a tool which is widely used in measuring the nature of intrusive thoughts that are experienced in the cases of post-traumatic stress disorder. The study confirmed that stroke survivors having emotionalism also exhibit more other forms of mood symptoms (rated using the GHQ-12) than those without emotionalism.
Helen and Susan (2009) conducted a study on the coping strategies that are employed by stroke patients who have been hospitalized. The paper focused on the implications that it has for the continuity as well as the management of the stroke patient care. The paper described the findings of study into the various perceptions of a rather multi-professional practice that is provided to stroke patients, their informal careers as well as the hospital staff. The researchers employed unstructured interviews with 9 stroke patients as well as 8 informal carers. Various studies were developed for the daya for the interview and this formed the basis of the questionnaire that was designed in order to ascertain the objectives of the care for the various case studies as well as the locations of the overall professional responsibility for arriving at those aims and objectives. A total of thirty one respondents returned the questionnaires from a wide range of backgrounds (professional). The findings indicated that patients as well as their carers frequently sought out beneficial relationships with the hospital staff as well as other patients so as to effectively gain information that would help then in the understanding of the uncertain nature of their future. The earlier interviews were also dominated by the constant search for information of definite nature as well as general feeling that the hospital's professional staff wre never passing out information to them. Reluctant on passing specific information . The level of uncertainty that surrounded the recovery of every individual stroke patient meant that a supportive relationship was automatically initiated between the patients and their carers. This relationship needs to be recognized as well as nurtured. The findings of this tudy presents a perspective that patients are people who are involved in a proactive albeit without any form of explicit guidance in the building of supportive relationships with their careers so as to gain knowledge as well as information necessary for counteracting their experience of uncertainty that is associated with being diagnosed with stroke.
Carod-Artal and Egodo (2009) conducted a study on the Quality of Life. Their study was focused on the importance of a good recovery. The background of the study was based on the fact that Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a very important and widely recognized outcome after a stroke incidence. An increase in the level of survival as well as the presence of moderate levels of impairment in the long-term survivors of stroke have an impact on their Health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
The method used in the study included the use of Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as a measure and determinant of quality of life in several stroke survivors. The results indicated that stroke is the number one cause of long-term disability in most Western nations. Specific Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scales have been devised in the last couple of years. These include the Stroke Impact Scale, the Stroke and Aphasia HRQoL Scale, the Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale and the Burden of…[continue]
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