Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Research and development was encouraged for future developments as well to continue to make security a priority (Airport Security, 1989, p. 2).
Also in response to the bombing of Flight 103, the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990 was passed. Senator Wendell H. Ford opened the proceedings with the statement: "The terrorist bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in December 1988 tragically demonstrated that something more is needed to be done to protect Americans traveling by air" (Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990, 1990, p. 1).
In later hearings on implementation, it was noted by Thomas C. Kelly, Vice President of Security for the Air Transport Association, that U.S. airports were much safer than foreign airports and that this fact should be noted when dealing with this legislation: "Our primary focus in the development of this legislation was to ensure that it would contain provisions imposing the same extraordinary procedures on foreign flag carriers that the FAA currently imposes only on U.S. carriers operating in international routes" (Implementation of the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990, 1991, p. 110). Kelly notes that U.S. carriers must either physically inspect or x-ray all checked bags, make supplemental inspections of all carry-on bags, provide guards for all aircraft on the ground, and inspect all maintenance and service personnel with access to aircraft. U.S. carriers also perform redundant interrogations of passengers fitting certain profiles, appoint and train ground security coordinators, and accept no baggage from off-site sources. Such requirements are expensive and detract from the ease and speed of processing the passenger, which leads to another reason for demanding that foreign carriers provide the same degree of security -- to see that there is a level playing field in economic terms.
Clearly, these measures did not prevent the terrorist actions of 9-11, and that fact brought about a rethinking of many of the earlier measures, a strengthening of security measures, and the institution of new measures, many of which had earlier been rejected as intrusive and overly time-consuming. For the most part, American counter-terrorist actions with reference to airlines have tended to be reactive, and proposals for increased safety were largely ignored until 9-11, as Lansford (2003) notes:
For instance, in 1996, Clinton appointed Vice President Al Gore to head a commission on airline security. The commission issued a number of recommendations, including increased profiling of passengers and background checks, especially of those passengers who bought one-way tickets or paid cash or who had links to suspected terrorist groups. However, the commission's recommendations were not accepted, partially because of opposition from the Department of Transportation and the Federal Aviation Administration because of costs (Lansford, 2003, para. 27).
Many of these same provisions have now been adopted, and the country seems much more willing to adopt measures that might add cost or that might increase inconvenience. Often, these measures are also reactive, though, as when a shoe-bomber was caught on a plane and now there are shoe inspections before a flight.
Counter-terrorism should be easier to implement in this climate, not just for airlines but for other venues as well, but the public does become weary of constant remainders of the potential threat and may begin to resist some of these measures. So long as the events of 9-11 remain in the public consciousness, however, such resistance will be minimal. The events in New York last week show this clearly as a concern for a threat to the subway meant stringent security measures for passengers, which meant a slowdown in commuting and other problems. The public accepted this with general equanimity, however, based on a memory of the bombings in Madrid and London a few months before. What the public really wants is for the government to find a way to reach the terrorists on their home ground and prevent them from attacking in the first place, but short of this, stronger security measures at home are adopted and accepted. This was true when the threat was largely of random hijackings and has expanded as the threat has expanded.
Airport security (1989). Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives.
February 9, 1989.
Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990 (1990). Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate. October 4, 1990.
Dorey, F.C. (1983). Aviation security. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
Implementation of the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990 (1991).
Committee on Public Works and Transportation, House of Representatives. July 24, 1991.
"Counter-Terrorism Terrorism Takes Up A" (2005, October 13) Retrieved December 8, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/counter-terrorism-takes-up-a-69673
"Counter-Terrorism Terrorism Takes Up A" 13 October 2005. Web.8 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/counter-terrorism-takes-up-a-69673>
"Counter-Terrorism Terrorism Takes Up A", 13 October 2005, Accessed.8 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/counter-terrorism-takes-up-a-69673
Global Jihad, a Myth or Reality The Jihad is often associated with a certain Muslim fight against the unfaithful, one that has been going on for decades now and which is unlikely to stop in coming years. However, despite this sustainable development of the notion and everything it entangles, it cannot be stated without a doubt that this is an obvious reality. This assumption is made based on the fact that
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps
Terrorism The efforts to outdo terrorists are seemingly falling off, leaving with it underprivileged notion of the prospective for a proper psychological involvement to terrorist perception only. However, the bulk research within this circumference have brought about hopeful as well as exhilarating beginning for an intangible progress in coming to terms to psychological procedure transversely to all ranks of terrorist activities. An argument has come up for much considerable detachment with
S. combating the current Taliban threat? David Kilcullen is the chief strategist in the "Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism" at the U.S. Department of State in Washington, D.C. In a 2006 Washington D.C. speech, Kilcullen stated that "insurgency, including terrorism," will be America's enemies' "weapon of choice" against the "unprecedented superiority" of U.S. military firepower (Kilcullen, 2006, p. 1). Citing Bill Murray's iconic film Groundhog Day, Kilcullen notes that
National security and intelligence policy focus on offices that the federal government controls. These policies have gained the support of the communities who have the resources used in implementing such policies. Therefore, the national security and intelligence policy aims at re-organizing homeland security and intelligence systems for different national entities and private sector. However, these policies do not stipulate the activities the communities will implement in an effort to provide
Some rates had even decreased. Maritime shipping rates grew by 5 to 10% on average in the two weeks after the attack, but that rise was soon reversed. Airfreight rates, however, were about 10% higher in late 2001 than before the attacks. Due to the abrupt slowing of cumulative demand starting in 2000 and the decline in fuel costs after the terrorism, there should have been a steeper falling
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and