An authoritarian leader gathers members in a cult and isolates them from the mainstream. Bodrero says this does not constitute a problem, unless the group becomes violent. When a leader uses rhetoric and violence to silence internal opposition, Bodrero believes the group may be on the path to violent extrem- ist behavior. Doomsday cults emerge from such dynamics and believe they must take offensive action to bring about the end of the world.
Black Hebrew Israelism is a form of black supremacy. Its origins trace back to the Civil War and were relatively peaceful. Recently, Ben Ami
Ben Israel, also known as Ben Carter, had a vision in Chicago telling him that African- Americans were the true Jews of old and the people who call themselves Jews are impostures. Whites are evil incarnate, descended from the devil. Bodrero (1999) says the most violent aspect of this movement formed in the Miami- based Nation of Yahweh.
My own research (White, 2001) summarizes white supremacy theology.
Christian Identity is a theology that grew from a nineteenth century concept known as Anglo-Israelism. Its basic tenant is that the ancient tribes of Israel were Caucasians who migrated to Europe shortly after the death of Jesus. Whites are actually the descendants of the chosen tribes of Israel, and whites are asked to identify with the Israelites of old.
Christian Identity is strongly anti-Semitic, claiming that humans originated from two seed lines. Whites are directly descended from God, while
Jews originated from an illicit sexual union between the devil and the first white woman. Nonwhite races evolved from animals and are categorized as subhumans. Identity Christians believe that biblical covenants apply only to the white race and that Jesus of Nazareth was not a Jew,
but the white Israelite son of God. Christian Identity views are championed by Aryan Nations, a variety of prominent Christian Identity !
pas- tors, Posse Comitatus, and the American Institute of Theology.
Nordic Christianity or Odinism is a hybrid form of Christianity and old
Norse religions. It exists in two forms. Nordic Christianity combines a pan- theon of Nordic gods under the triune deity of Christianity. Odin,
Thor, and other Nordic gods serve Christ by militantly protecting the white Norse race. Pure Odinism, however, ignores Christian concepts.
Enjoying a rebirth in nineteenth century Germany, Odinism simply involves the resurrection of old Nordic myths and worship of the Nordic pantheon. It migrated to the United States through the neo-Nazi movement. Both forms of Nordic religion call for the militant defense of race.
bloodlines. And homeland.
PART I THE CRIMINOLOGY OF TERRORISM
Another form of militant right-wing Christianity can simply be called
Freewheeling Fundamentalism. This form of religion rejects both the blatant racism of Christian Identity and the hybrid nature of Nordic religions. The "tteewheelers" are fiercely patriotic and use religion to reinforce social beliefs, values, and behavior. They tend to believe the federal government is not mys- tically evil, but that it is opposed to the reign of God. They also believe agents of the government are in conspiracy to destroy America's monetary system and national sovereignty.
Many of these groups oppose racism, and some claim they are not anti-Semitic. Freewheeling Fundamentalism is the religion of the Patriot movement.
The last form of religion is called "Creatorism;' a religion originating with the World Church of the Creator (WCOTC). Founded by Ben
Klassen, the WCOTC is secular, deistic, and racist. Klassen's purpose was to divorce white people from weak theistic religions, claiming such religions were ridiculous expressions of utopian ideals. Klassen said the creator placed things in motion and left people on their own. Klassen's slogan was, "Our race is our religion." Creating his own mythology in tracts on naturalistic health and 17te White Man~ Bible, Klassen called
on white people to fight Jews, nonwhite races, and whites who disagreed with racist philosophy. His successor, Matt Hale, who. has taken the secular title Pontifex Maximus from Julius Caesar, calls for vio- lence to protect the white race. The cry of Creatorists is RAHOWA, an' acronym for Racial Holy War.
1. Religion and terrorism become related when religious ideas are subor- dinated to political, ethnic, or ideological objectives.
2. Huntington believes nationalism and ideology have dominated interna-tional conflict for the past 200 years. Since there are no longer two competing ideologies dominating international affairs, he believes future conflicts may result from cultural paradigms clashing in certain parts of the world.
3. Hoffman states that religious terrorism is growing. Religious terrorists represent more of a threat than traditional terrorists because they are not limited by the same types of social restraints.
4. Eschatological thinking is dangerous when combined with terrorism because it produces an atmosphere where intolerant holy warriors engage in violence to usher in what they believe to be the final age.
5. Berlet describes the three processes of demonization as scapegoating, conspiracy, and forming an alliance with an ultimate evil force.
6. The major conflicts involving religious terrorism in the world today include: (1) the Indian subcontinent with struggles among…