Define decentralization. Explain the ties between this movement and labeling theory. What is, in your informed opinion, the single most important practice to emerge from the decentralization movement? Why do you think that this is the case? The idea behind this movement is captured by the phrase "less not more"; however, Blomberg and Lucken contend that "not less -- more" was the result. How was this possible?
Decentralization refers to the dispersion of power by the central authority to the existing local and regional authorities. The central authority decides to delegate its functions and power to the authorities. Labeling theory helps in illustrating the reason to why people may engage in defiant behaviors. For instance, an individual associating with thieve might receive the label of being one of the thieves. The individual getting the label may start incorporating the behavior into his daily activities. Blomberg states that label theory helps in justifying decentralization in its concepts. The social domestic ills that the government could not accommodate made them start distributing the natural resources (Blomberg & Lucken, 2010). In this case, the distribution of natural resources is another meaning of decentralization while the definition of the domestic ills is in the context of labeling theory. This implies that the contexts of labeling theory that helps in illustrating the meaning of crimes in the society triggered the government into adopting decentralization. Blomberg asserts that the government stuck up in the "war of mentality" against the domestic social ills. The only weapon that the government could use as a remedy was the massive mobilization of national resources to the local authorities. The local authorities are able to deal with any youth labeled since there is a need to divert the latter from the system. The federal government cannot deal directly with the offenders at the localities as they can only take them to the prisons and reformatories. The local authorities work towards keeping these offenders out from the reformatories and prisons (Blomberg & Lucken, 2010).
The single most important practice to emerge from decentralization is improved quality of decision in an organization. The decentralization process helps in relieving the burden, from the top officials, of making decisions on their own. Further, the relief helps in saving the valuable time that the top officials can use in other activities that have long-term benefits. This means that the top officials will solve more problems, than before, with the help of their subordinates at all the levels thereby helping in improving the level of decision-making. In the context of the federal government, the decentralization helps in setting enough security and rehabilitation activities in the domestic settings. Otherwise, without decentralization, the government would have little contact with the people. The government has to delegate some power to the local authorities in order to counteract crimes.
The "less not more" which is the idea behind the decentralized is different from "more not less" in the context of the considered results. While the former deals with the need to realize to reduce the negative effects in the community, Blomberg deals with the need to increase the level of positive effect in the society. For the former, the results represents the reduction in the negative effect hence less from more while, for Blomberg, the results represent the increase in positive effects hence more from less. Blomberg deals with the need for the government to assert less effort towards realizing more security to the society. The other idea, for instance, may deal with the input of more accountability to realize less corruption.
Please discuss how order-maintenance policing is thought to impact crime. Please be detailed and site specific evidence in your post. Your response post should discuss what the authors in this week's reading found regarding its effectiveness and how it was effective (if it was).
The issue of relationship between the order maintenance policing and effects of crime has become a hot issue in the security field. While some researchers argue that there is a negative relationship existing between the two, others support the view that the two have a positive relationship. This brings the need to discuss on ways that order maintenance policing impacts on crime in the society. Kelling and Souca (2001) assert that there is strong negative relationship between the changes occurring in violent crime rates and the order maintenance policing (Rosenfeld et al., 2011). They state that the prevalence of order maintenance policing have…