Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
Domestic Violence Legislation
Federal and State Governments Fight Domestic Violence
Although numerous federal and state laws sanctioning domestic violence exist in the United States, the incidences of domestic violence remain substantial. The federal government has undoubtedly taken significant steps over the years to protect the victims of domestic violence through legislation. One such Act is the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA). The Act, at the time of its enactment in 1994, focused on providing funding to victims, services to victims, and training to judges and law enforcement officers. Still, as the number of domestic violence cases remained constant, the Act was re-enacted in 2000 and once again in 2006. The latest re-enactment extends services to domestic violence victims by addressing the issue of domestic violence related homelessness. The 2006 re-enactment guarantees that victims will not be evicted from government funded housing. Still, the VAWA has drawn criticism due to its gender specific title; although the federal government has assured that all victims of domestic violence are eligible for and will receive benefits under the Act. Keeping with the spirit of federal legislation such as the VAWA, most states enacted state specific legislation. For example, California has enacted stringent criminal penalties including pro-arrest policies, and many states have mandatory arrest policies for domestic violence calls. Regardless of the abundance of federal laws and the often strict state laws, the incidences of domestic violence remain widespread in the U.S.; this remains a concern to both the federal and state governments.
According to the National Institute of Justice, approximately 1.3 million women and 835,000 men are physically assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States (National Institute of Justice, 2000). In addition, it has been reported that most incidences of domestic violence are not reported to the police, so this number may actually be significantly higher. In response to the incidences of domestic violence, both the federal and state governments have responded with legislation. Although both systems of government have similar goals in that they protect victims, they do so in different ways.
For example, at the federal level, it is common to find legislation that focuses on the victim and victim rights such as those that provide funding and resources. On the other hand, at the state level it is common to find legislation that focuses on sanctioning the offender, criminalizing domestic violence, and results in the offender facing imprisonment and fines. This paper discusses the federal and state domestic violence laws in detail and explores the effects that these laws have had on domestic violence.
Violence Against Women Act of 2005
At the federal level, the Violence Against Women Act was originally passed in 1994 and re-enacted in as the Violence Against Women Act of 2000 and then in 2005 (Bartol and Bartol, 2008). The Violence Against Women Act recognized that domestic violence was not only a crime against the victim but a crime against the family (Id.). The re-enactment of the Act in 2000 and in 2006 expanded research and services to victims and focused on the role of the courts in combating violence against women (Id.). This section will focus on the 2005 enactment and whether or not it has accomplished its outcomes.
The Violence Against Women Act of 2005 included new housing and legal protection, and programs for victims of domestic violence (Stern, 2010). The Act also expanded protection to victims of sexual assault and stalking (Id.). As significant feature of the 2006 Act is the focused expansion of housing protection for victims of domestic violence (Id.). The 2006 Act protects victims of domestic violence from being evicted from section 8 housing in general or being evicted from section 8 housing because they are victims (Id). The 2006 enactment's goal was to address the effect that domestic violence has on homelessness. According to the National Task Force, 92% of homeless women have been physically or sexually assaulted (2005).
In spite of the benefits of the VAWA, the impact of the Act has been criticized. For example, the VAWA provides funding towards training programs for judges and law enforcement personnel and encourages judges to issue restraining orders (RADAR, 2010). As a result of these provisions, 22 states have mandatory arrest laws for domestic violence and eight states encourage arrest of domestic violence perpetrators (Id.).
In addition, the gender specific language of the VAWA has also been criticized. While research shows that women are…[continue]
"Domestic Violence Legislation Federal And State Governments" (2010, December 14) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/domestic-violence-legislation-federal-and-49290
"Domestic Violence Legislation Federal And State Governments" 14 December 2010. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/domestic-violence-legislation-federal-and-49290>
"Domestic Violence Legislation Federal And State Governments", 14 December 2010, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/domestic-violence-legislation-federal-and-49290
Domestic violence is often overlooked or simplified. People assume children who become exposed to domestic violence only exhibit negative symptoms. Just a couple of decades ago, few had any idea of the impact domestic violence had and continues to have on a child. From growing up and dealing with the pain and/or stigma, to lesser social skills and bad coping mechanisms, the effects of domestic violence on children are clearly
Domestic Violence Elder Abuse Policy Elder Abuse Policy In the last three decades, the events of elder abuse have increased greatly which leads to the increase in the needs of victims and further develops a need for having a sound policy combating this situation. Hence, a structure is required which can help in educating public, training professional specializing in this field, increasing necessary measures required for adult protection, increasing prosecution and reduction
At the same time that movement activists were pushing for the enactment of new legal measures, they were also working to develop a grass-roots community-based approach to providing direct services to victims of domestic violence. In 1979, the first domestic violence shelter in the United States was opened in an apartment in St. Paul, Minnesota, staffed entirely by volunteers. Today more than 2,000 shelters and crisis centers dot the North
. Even when the child in a home where DV occurs is not physically harmed, most of the time, these children know about the violence. As a result, they may experience emotional and behavior problems (The Domestic Violence…, N.d.). A victim of DV needs to be reminded: She is not alone. She is not at fault. Help is available. In The physician's guide to domestic violence, P.R. Salber and E. Taliaferro (N.d.). about stress
Domestic Terrorism The Al-Qaeda group is probably the most popular terrorist group known this century for their very high-profile attacks; their most bold move was the destruction of the World Trade Center, now known today as 911, or September 11th. These motives are said to be of the religious sort, however there are arguments when it comes to the validity of these claims, as it may come off as to discriminate
Federal and State Legislation Domestic Violence Legislation at the Federal and State Level Domestic violence is considered any violent act taken against someone involved in an intimate or family relationship (Eulich, 2013). It is a serious problem with countless victims each year. In 1994, Congress passed the United States Crime Bill which gave power to the federal government to help combat domestic violence, in particular violence against women and children. Specifically, the
awarding audit contracts by U.S. government departments and agencies Audit Management Red Rationale for and Objectives of the project main and secondary Desktop or literature search Rationale for Search Methodology LITERATURE/DESKTOP RESEARCH Authoritative sources Desktop Findings Justification for audits Evolving role of auditors Types of audit contracts Understanding the Audit Process Best practices and benchmarking Terminology Case Studies Audit management is a fundamental element in government accountability, control and performance management. Certainly there is justification within the Federal government to conduct audits of contracts for the