Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society
It is the habit of history to study several cultures as if they have developed independently of one another, and entirely different. The results of national and regional pride are evident in the manner in which history is retold, as each civilization builds the future of its own region and develops its own regional differences and standards, each is often studied as if it has developed in a vacuum. Within the primary sources of the foundational societies that encompass the history of today's world there are many differences to be found; yet there is also a clear indication that Early Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society all developed within the context of the Ancient Roman Civilization, with all the resulting effects. Additionally, they all developed feudal and manorial institutions in response to internal and external pressures of encroachment. In short all these societies, were seeking a greater power than the individual, through faith societal order and protective means
Within the primary sources of the region, Procopius from Secret History, Sebeos, Armenian History, Muhammed from The Quran, The History from Al-Tabari, Bede from A History of The English Church and People, From the Lombard Laws: Rothair's Edict, Einhard from The life of Charlemagne, Monastic clamors, curses and excommunications and from The Wanderer:Anglo-Saxon poetry can be gleaned extensive evidence about the structure and character of the many peoples as it is reflected by the influence of the early Roman Culture. Each culture developed fortified cities and attempted to develop strong armies to both defend and recapture lost land. Additionally, each culture followed in some ways the character of the early Roman's as they began to challenge regional religions and embrace one universal faith, be it Christian or Islamic and as was mentioned before the development of feudal and manorial society closely mirrored such development in the early Roman culture.
The standards of the development of a feudal or manorial system is demonstrated almost throughout the primary sources of the region. Examples of redistribution of lands, in the name of the greatest power, the Emperor are present in Procopius' Secret History, though he did not agree with these tactics the redistribution of wealth and property is evident from Justinian's actions as Emperor.
He gathered to himself the private estates of Roman citizens from all over the Empire some by accusing their possessions of crimes of which they were innocent, others by juggling their owners' words into the semblance of a gift to him of their property. And many, caught in the act of murder and other crimes, turned their possessions over to him and thus escaped the penalty for their sins. (Procopius 322)
The appreciation of the height and need for feudal associations can be clearly seen within the Edict of Rothair.
Any soldier who refuses to aid his Duke when that one is pursuing justice, shall pay twenty solidi as compensation to the king and to the duke." (Rothair's Edict 342)
Also true of the "The Wander" as it demonstrates the ideals of the feudal standard as one man quests for a lord to follow and protect. "He who is alone often lives to find favor, mildness of the Lord, even though he has long had to stir with his arms the frost-cold sea, troubled in heart over the water-way had to tread the tracks of exile. Fully-fixed in his fate." (352) The man who is unconnected to a higher power, in this case a secular ruler is lost to himself and the world, in exile. External and internal threats helped create feudal systems, fortified cities and a clear reflection of the legacy of early Rome. "Earlier on there had been another dangerous conspiracy against Charlemagne in Germany" (Einhard 345) In the following short quote can be seen clear evidence of the fortified city, supported and opened by a toll. "They made peace with Umar on the condition that they would pay the poll tax and opened up Jerusalem for him." (Al-Tabari 333)
Speaking ofd Justinian Procopius explains his view of the squandering of resources paid to enemies, without who threateded the Roman Empire:
He gave much of it to the Huns who, from time to time, entered the state; and in consequence the Roman provinces were subject to constant incursions, for these barbarians, having once tasted Roman wealth, never forgot the road that led to it. (Procopius 321)
Regardless of Procopius'…[continue]
"Early Medieval Western Society Byzantine Society And Islamic Society" (2004, September 27) Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/early-medieval-western-society-byzantine-177417
"Early Medieval Western Society Byzantine Society And Islamic Society" 27 September 2004. Web.22 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/early-medieval-western-society-byzantine-177417>
"Early Medieval Western Society Byzantine Society And Islamic Society", 27 September 2004, Accessed.22 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/early-medieval-western-society-byzantine-177417
Western Civilization From Prehistory to the Renaissance Early Civilizations What do historians mean by "pre-history?" What was life like for early humans during these years? There are many things that we as citizens of the modern world take for granted. First among these is probably the enormous amount of recorded information that we have at our fingertips. Everything from our purchases, to our places of employment, to the times and places of our births
One of the most brilliant contributions of the Byzantium is its contribution to modern music and the development of what the world has come to appreciate as the foundations of classical music. The Byzantine "medieval" (Lang, 1997), in fact, the Byzantium influence is considered to be critical to the development of the Greek music and the relative genius behind Greek music (Lang, 1997) The quoted sovereign melody (Lang, 1997) is the
Islamic Technology Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age Cultural Environment The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish
Thus, stylistically, they may have owed a great deal to the Persian-style painting traditions in the lands from which the relics came. However, only vestiges remain today, making it difficult to ascertain this for a certainty (Derbes, 1995). S. Maria in Cosmedin's connection with the tradition of Marian veneration and with the entire substrate of Eastern/Islamic influence is easier to trace. The church began as a fourth-century loggia, was enclosed
Prior to the solidification of society in the major cities of Greece, the period called the Greek Dark Ages (c. 1100-750 BC) shows that there was a great deal of trade and cultural influence between Greece, Egypt, and the Assyrian/Babylonian cultures, This was a time in which the alphabetic script was brought to Greece, and the basis of culture and technology developed. Because of the influences of the other
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was Rome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001). Islamic Golden Age The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries
An important influence on Renaissance architecture was the Dome of the Rock, famous for its spatial harmony, balance and overall perfection. . . . The Dome of the Rock is basically a Byzantine building [with] classical columns, topped by arches in alternating black and white marble, the dome, and the gold and semi-precious mosaics that decorate the walls all speak of Byzantine heritage" (p. 119). Some scholars, though, have argued