Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
Educational Leadership in Latino Students
Flow of Information:
Introduction/Preliminary Lit Analysis
Status of Performance of Latino Students
Why Study Latinos?
Why the Latino Performance is Low?
How to change the situation?
Los Angeles Specific Data/Information
Increase & Improve Teacher/School Parent Communication
Train the teachers - Development
Improve Substitute Teaching
Set High Expectations
Latino Experience in Princeton
Tracking of Students' Performance - Is it Right?
Latino Para-Educator Vs Latino Student
How do teacher expectations affect student outcomes?
This study was intended to investigate whether teacher expectation of student performance directly or indirectly affects a student's likelihood for achievement and success. Specifically this study will examine the phenomena of teacher expectation on Latino students, though it is expected that the results of this study will be generalize able to the general student population, inclusive and exclusive of other minority groups.
It was anticipated that exploration of student performance would provide insight into the significance of teacher's expectations on student's academic achievement. Researchers have examined the dynamic that exists between student performance and teacher expectation for some time. Traditionally in schools throughout America, students are assigned certain educational "tracks" early on, where they are segregated into groups that correspond to a teacher's expectation of low, high or gifted performance. Studies suggest that once students are assigned to a particular group, they are likely to continue in that group throughout the duration of their educational career.
The study also intends to prove that students who are subjected to continual poor outlook subsequently develop lower expectations for their personal achievement and perform accordingly. Students who time and time again are perceived as being "less than" eventually begin to develop a self-fulfilling prophecy, where they truly begin to believe that they are capable of less than there peers. The Latino population was selected for many reasons. In many school districts, the population of students who speak Spanish as their primary language is growing.
In the L.A. school district for example, a majority of students (more than 93%) that do not speak English speak Spanish. Schools in districts like this should be teaching children of all backgrounds and ethnicities with the same high standards of achievement and mastery without exception. This often however, is not the case. Despite massive school reforms that occurred throughout the 1980s and 1990s, achievement gaps still persist among different groups, including Latino students. Latino students make up a majority of the student body in many school districts. Despite this, their performance is often highlighted as being far below that of their peers.
The reasons for this have not been adequately studied. Part of the intention of this study is to assess to what extent pre-conceived notions, placement and teacher expectation have on the potential for success among this population. It is expected that the results will indicate a direct correlation or positive relationship between teacher expectation and student performance. It is also expected that the expectation of teachers will have a long lasting impact on a students future potential for success regardless of their actual ability.
Some research has suggested that widely held values and beliefs about race, ethnicity, social status, gender and disability as well as assumptions regarding children's achievement potential are responsible for widening the educational gaps that exist among Latino students and other minority and majority groups. Teacher's low expectations for student performance among Latino populations and other minorities or low-income groups such as Native American and African-American, whether out of misplaced "sympathy" or frustration, are often self-fulfilling. Meaning, low expectations from teachers very often produce a correspondingly low level of curriculum.
This curriculum is often presented in a negating manner, which results in low performance and low student achievement. Students come to expect a lower standard or performance, and are more than likely discouraged from pursuing advanced endeavors or more challenging programs. The possibility also exists that many students have the potential to excel, but the framework through which education is provided to them does not optimize their learning capability. Thus, their talent goes to waste and students are categorically left in low track patterns leading to failure rather than success and achievement, from both an academic and social perspective.
This study assumed that future success of students is also contingent upon the ability of teachers to infuse students with a sense of self-worth and capability. Research suggests that a close tie exists between teacher expectations, student - teacher interaction and future continued success. A large portion of a students potential for success relies upon their ability to dynamically interact with the student body and later, the faculty during their educational careers. Students who are not nurtured at an early age to be high performers and interact on a comfortable and natural basis may be deprived of some of the opportunities that may come their way later in life.
Statement of Hypothesis/Research Questions
This study examines the following primary hypothesis:
A) Teacher's low expectations for student performance results in low student achievement. The hypothesis is supported by the premise that students who are subjected to frequent low expectations will self-fulfill, and eventually develop low expectations for themselves.
B) Secondarily, this study aims to examine the following hypothesis: Students will realize significant gains and achievement when teachers raise expectations. This study intends to investigate the theory that students develop a sense of self-concept and confidence through interactions. Their ability to interact is directly influenced by teachers' willingness to promote interaction and communication in the classroom, as well as a teacher's ability to generate warmth and a sense of camaraderie.
Related to this, a third hypothesis will be examined, the idea that achievement oriented curriculums presented in a positive manner and with positive associations, when combined with self-esteem-based programs, will result in higher academic success across all gender, ethnic and socio-demographic groups. Research suggests that low expectation programs might have a more dramatic impact than high expectation programs; regardless of this, students exposed to achievement oriented programs are more likely to believe that they have the ability to accomplish their goals and build successful relationships. Students in achievement oriented programs are more likely to push themselves to succeed, regardless of external obstacles faced including socio-demographic, race and gender differences.
Thus, the following questions will be examined:
How do teacher expectations reflect upon student achievement?
What types of curriculum are necessary to engage Latino students and promote academic success?
What teaching methods might result in a more comprehensive learning environment where the link between teacher expectation and student performance is better mitigated?
How is self-esteem influenced by teacher expectation; is teacher expectation more damaging or influential for certain groups?
How can teachers generate a sense of self-confidence and warmth in the classroom?
What techniques need to be utilized by instructors to infuse the classroom with success and comfort?
What factors are preventing Latino students from excelling in traditional classroom environments?
Problem Statement (or Purpose)
The purpose of this study is to prove that the basis for achievement among Latino students rests in part upon the ability of educators to expect the best from students. The study will also show how teacher expectations of performance relate to actual performance, and whether teacher expectation results in self-fulfilling prophecies for students at all levels of the educational system.
Significance of the Study
This study is being conducted to determine the extent of effect teacher expectation has on the ability of Latino students to realize achievement, at an elementary and an expanded level. A difference certainly exists between classrooms that work and those that do not; this difference might be attributed to the performance expectations that teachers have for students.
For students to truly succeed, classes must be designed in a manner that offers a challenging and rewarding experience for students that goes beyond the state curriculum framework. High-performance expectations from pupils are critical to continued achievement. Expectations once made generally influence and shape other decisions critical to a student's life. Expectations once formed also generally influence classroom design, teacher roles, instructional goals and much more. This study aims to prove that expectations about students can markedly affect instruction. It intends to provide a framework for describing the ill effects of such low expectations on primarily Latino student populations.
Studies have shown that the concepts of teacher expectations and self-concept, cultural capital and closure are useful mechanisms for illuminating the impact informal teacher interaction has on student achievement.
Part of the premise this study is based on reliant upon the idea that students generally interact at different rates and in different ways within faculty members. This interaction impacts a students potential for success on an academic and social level. The development of successful self-concept is also reliant in part upon a pupils ability to interact and perceive him/herself as confidant and worthy of recognition.
This study also assumes that teacher performance does affect student achievement and outcome. The study assumes that the information gathered can be applied to minority and majority populations in school systems throughout the Nation, not those limited to the greater…[continue]
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