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Immigration on U.S. Crime Rates
Immigration in the United States of America
Structure of Immigration
Impact of Immigration on the Crime rates of the United States of America
Conclusion and Policy Implications
Immigration Structure in 1970
Immigration Structure in 2010
Foreign Born Population in the United States of America
Immigrant Share in the Total Population and Across Counties, 1950-2000
Immigrant Flows and Rate of Homicide
Rate of Growth of Incarceration and Immigration
Reasons for the Removal of Criminal Immigrants
This paper aims at identifying the relationship that exists between immigration and crime rates. It aims at highlighting the impact of immigration on the rate of crimes. In addition to that, this paper also makes recommendation, in relation to the alteration of immigrant policies so as to make immigration more secure and safe.
There has been an evident increase in the number of crimes along with the increase in the rate of immigration but a mixed literature exists in relation to the impact of immigration on the crime rates of the United States of America. Immigration is believed to have a combination of positive and negative impacts on the crime rates of U.S.. The United States of America, through the deployment of effective and efficient immigration policies, can mitigate the drawbacks of immigration and deploy the skills of immigrant population for the overall benefit of the nation.
Effects of Immigration on U.S. Crime Rates
1.1. Background of the Research
The United States has been historically regarded as a country of immigrants. The change in the nature of the immigrants, however, has altered the demographic landscape of the nation in an evident and influential manner. In the recent era, a large number of immigrants, who shifted to United State of America, belonged to Latin America. Apart from that, most of the immigrations, which took place in the United States of America, are unauthorized. (Jones-Correa, 2012)
Since the era of 1960s, crime rates as well as the rate of immigrants travelling to the United States of America have increased evidently. About three fourth of the population of the United States of America believes that the increase in the crime is attributable to increase in the rate of crime. Some of the academic researches, however, do not develop any such relationship. (Spenkuch, 2011)
This paper, therefore, aims at identifying the relationship that exists between immigration and crime rates. It aims at highlighting the impact of immigration on the rate of crimes. In addition to that, this paper also makes recommendation, in relation to the alteration of immigrant policies so as to make immigration more secure and safe.
1.2. Research Aim
This research aims at analyzing the relationship that exists between immigration and crime rates in the United States of America. It highlights the impact of immigration on the crime rates in the United States of America.
1.3. Research Questions
This research will address the following questions:
What is relationship between immigration and the rates of crime in the United States of America?
How can the existing policies be altered to enhance the quality of immigration in the United States of America?
1.4. Significance of the Study
This study would provide relevant information to the concerned authorizes in relation to the impacts of immigration on the crime rates of the United States of America. In addition to that, it will also provide important information to the policy makers as well. Furthermore, this research will provide reliable information to the individuals and organizations that aim at conducting further research on the topic under consideration, effects of immigration of the crime rate of the United States of America.
2. Literature Review
This section closely examines the previous literature that exists in relation to the issue under consideration, effects of immigration of the crime rate of the United States of America. The section analyzes various studies and draws out important findings in relation to the impact of immigration on the rate of crimes in the United States of America.
2.1. Immigration in the United States of America
The United States of America holds a strong history of immigration and this is the reason why it is called a nation of immigrants. This can be established on the basis of the following facts:
In the year 2010, 40 million of the residents of the United States of America, out of the 309 million people of the United States of America were foreign born. (Jones-Correa, 2012)
The United States of America grants legal permanent residence to around 1 million immigrants 1 year. The rate of provision of permanent residence of United States of America is greater than any other nation of the world. (Jones-Correa, 2012)
During the era of 1990s, the arrival of immigrants to the United States of America amounted to more than 14 million people. (Jones-Correa, 2012)
In addition to that, another 13 million people migrated to the United States of America between the year 2000 and the year 2010. (Jones-Correa, 2012)
Previously immigration was restricted to certain states of the United States of America including California, New York, Texas and Florida. But recently the immigrants have spread widely in areas which previously witnesses a low rate of immigration. (Jones-Correa, 2012)
2.2. Structure of Immigration
The structure of immigration during the year 1970 was:
11% Latin American and Caribbean
8% North America
1% Africa (Jones-Correa, 2012)
The structure of immigration during the year
24% Latin American and Caribbean
2% North America
4% Africa (Jones-Correa, 2012)
2.3. Impact of Immigration on the Crime rates of the United States of America
The relationship between immigration and crime is one of the most controversial issue that has been confronted by the society in the present era. Previously the opinions that linked increase in crimes with the increase in immigration were based on stereotypes rather than empirical testing. But in the recent era a number of studies, based on theoretical structure and empirical testing have been conducted to determine the relationship that exist between immigration and crime rates in the United States of America. (Martinez, Jr. And T. Lee, 2000)
According to a study conducted by Martinez and Lee (2000), the involvement of immigrants in crime is greater than the natives of the United States of America. This conclusion was based on the fact that acculturation and assimilation problems faced by the immigrants is greater than the acculturation and assimilation problems that are confronted by the Native Americans. (Martinez, Jr. And T. Lee, 2000)
In addition to that, the immigrants generally reside in areas that are disorganized in nature. Furthermore, the regions in which the immigrants reside are generally characterized by features that are associated with high rates of crime. These characteristics include widespread poverty, high ratios of ethnic and racial discrepancy and a preference for male gender. These findings, however, are not based on rigorous empirical testing. (Martinez, Jr. And T. Lee, 2000)
It has, however, been indicated by Butcher and Piehl (1998b, 2005) and Moehling and Piehl, (2007), as quoted in the research of Bianchi, Buonanno and Pinotti, (2012), that in the recent era the rate of imprisonment of immigrants is lower than the rate of imprisonment of Native Americans. In the era of 1990s, however, the imprisonment rates of immigrants was greater than that of the Native Americans. (Bianchi, Buonanno and Pinotti, 2012)
This finding was contradicted by another study conducted by Borjas et al. (2010) which indicated that the recent immigrants contribute to the increase in the crime rates in the United States of America in an indirect manner. This is because the recent immigrants replace the blacks in the labor market. This, as a result, pressurizes the blacks economically and leads toward an increase in the criminal rates of the blacks and ultimately the United States of America. (Borjas, Grogger and Hanson, 2010)
In a study conducted by Rumbaut, Gonzales, Komaie, and Morgan, (2006), it was indicated that an increase in the rate of immigrants led towards an evident drop in the rate of crimes in the United States of America during the era of 1990s and 2000s. (Rumbaut et al., 2006) Apart from that, a study conducted by the professor of Harvard University, Dr. Robert Sampson, indicated that the immigrants belonging to first generation are 45% less likely to indulge in criminal behavior as compared to the native Americans, who belong to third generation. (Sampson, 2008)
In addition to that, in a study conducted by the Public Policy Institute of California in the year 2008, as quoted in the research of the Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles, (2008), indicated that the cities in the State of California, which have high rates of immigrants, have confronted lower rates of property crimes and violent crimes as compared to the cities that have low share of immigrants. This study also indicated that the relationship that exists between immigration and low rates of violent crimes is very…[continue]
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