Ethical Issues in Informed Consent Among Aboriginals in Australia Essay

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Interventional Project

Proposal for Early Intervention Project

In the recent past, the issue of family violence against children in the aboriginal communities has attracted significant attention of different stakeholders involved in the protection of the rights of the children (Backlar & Cutler, 2002). While significant attention has concentrated on the identification of the effective strategies for curbing general family violence, limited research has been done on family violence on children in Aboriginal communities (Bowman, 2004). Therefore, the following presents a proposal of the intervention that can be applied to ensure the reduction of cases of family violence against children in Aboriginal communities found in Australia. The analysis begins by providing the objectives of the program, method of intervention, ethical implications of the approach, and resources required for the success of the research. It also provides an analysis of the budgetary requirements, method of program evaluation, and the limitations that are likely to affect the outcomes of the project.

Objectives of the project

Objectives act as guiding principles in research. Among the general and specific objectives of this research, include;

General objectives

a) To identify the forms of family violence that face the children from aboriginal communities in Australia

b) To identify the factors that contribute to family violence against children in Australia

c) To identify social determinants that play a key role in contributing to family violence against children in aboriginal communities in Australia

d) To identify the effects of family violence on children from aboriginal communities in Australia

e) To develop the most effective intervention (s) applicable in preventing future occurrence of family violence against children in aboriginal communities in Australia

f) To identify the elements of effective family violence prevention programs that can be used to eradicate the incidences of family violence against children

Specific objectives

a) To identify the forms of family violence that affect children in aboriginal community X

b) To identify the factors contributing to family violence to children in community X

c) To identify the effects of family violence on children from aboriginal community X

d) To identify the efficacy of interventions adopted for preventing the occurrence of family violence against children in aboriginal community X

e) To identify the elements of secondary intervention that makes it effective in preventing and eradicating the occurrence of family-based violence against children in community X

Target group to receive the intervention

Family violence appears to be at a high rate in most of the aboriginal communities not only in Australia, but also in other parts of the world. The increasing rates of family violence have prompted most states to embrace the need for the adoption of strategies that aim at gaining understanding of the extent of the violence and effective interventions adoptable to reduce the incidence (Mahoney, 2005). While most of the interventions adopted by most governments have focused on the general strategies for eliminating family violence in aboriginal communities, limited knowledge is known on the effective interventions for eliminating family violence against children from aboriginal communities.

Similarly, empirical analysis shows that, significant researches conducted in the past have majorly focused on the effective secondary approaches applicable in preventing family violence against women of aboriginal communities, leaving behind the children who are vulnerable to its effects (Ellsberg & Heise, 2002). Therefore, the target group to receive the interventions provided in this research is two folded. Firstly, the research is designed to identify family problems that affect the children from aboriginal Community X, Australia. The research focuses on this group as it is underserved by most researches that have focused on the forms and interventions on preventing family violence in aboriginal communities across the world. Secondly, the research focuses on mainstreaming the organizations and partners of the Australian government working or planning to work in the prevention and elimination of aboriginal family violence against children in Australia.

The method of intervention to eliminate family violence against children in aboriginal community X

There exists no agreed form of intervention that can be adopted to prevent and eradicate the occurrence of family violence. However, significant evidence reveals the used of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions as effective in preventing the occurrence of family violence. The primary intervention of curbing the occurrence of family violence focuses on avoiding the risk factors that contribute to family violence. Secondary interventions aim at identifying the individuals at risk of family violence, preventing the progress of the vulnerable individuals to family violence, and developing effective strategies of preventing their occurrence and supporting the affected. Tertiary interventions aim at protecting the victims of family violence, providing care, punishment, and rehabilitation to the individuals affected by family violence. When choosing an effective intervention, Clements & Averill (2004) advice that organizations or stakeholders involved in the process should take into consideration the holistic nature of the adopted intervention. As stated by Currie (2005), holistic nature entails an approach that considered spiritual, cultural, and other factors of the ways of life of the aboriginal communities.

It is evident that the use of secondary interventions in preventing and eradicating the occurrence of family violence against children in the aboriginal community X will be effective. While primary and tertiary interventions focus on the elimination of the risk factors and providing care to affected after the occurrence of the violence, primary intervention focuses on the identification and elimination of the risk factors causing the problem. It is apparent that children in aboriginal community X are suffering from the effects of family violence (Labott & Johnson, 2004). As such, it excludes the applicability of primary and tertiary interventions, as they are effective before and after the occurrence of family violence. Similarly, the guiding approaches that facilitate the success of the secondary intervention makes it effective for preventing and eradicating the occurrence of family-based violence against aboriginal children in community X.

As stated by Kassam-Adams & Newman (2005), theoretical approaches of secondary intervention such as creation of awareness using educational methods, facilitation of behavioral change, and reducing the exposure of the community members make the approach effective for the study. In addition, the close association between family violence against children in aboriginal communities and substance and drug abuse makes the use of secondary intervention more effective due to the existence of a social problem (Langford, 2000).

Ethical implications of the research

Like any other research, conducting research on family violence against children is marred with significant ethical concerns will affect the outcomes of the research. According to Fontes (1998), research on the violence against children often raises a red flag to the communities involved and the organizations that should steer the adoption of the necessary strategies for preventing the occurrence of family violence against children. Similarly, Gondolf (2000) shows that research on family violence against children increases the risks of re-traumatization of the affected in the society. Such is attributed to the use of approaches that encourage expression of personal feelings related to the experience to promote long-term healing and recovery.

While some researches point undesired ethical implications of the research on the victims, communities, and the organizations involved, significant evidence shows this research to have the potentials of making the voices of the marginalized communities heard. In addition, Kassam-Adams & Newman (2002) show that researches that aim at providing practical solutions against family violence promotes the well-being of the society by informing the adult-centric research, practice, and policy initiatives that can be embraced to eliminate the problem. Moreover, analysis by Haesevoets (2003) showed that conducting a research that focuses on the family violence affecting the children call for the need for an understanding of the potential effects inherent in such researches to the family and society relationships.

As such, Hull et al., (2004) recommends the need for an appreciation of the responsibility and significant of involving the children and their families in this field of research. Moreover, studies into violence against children across a majority of the global communities have shown the need for the researchers understanding effective ways of interacting with the vulnerable children in a way considered safe and ethical to them and their community. Furthermore, Fontes (2004) shows the need for the creation of awareness of the risks involved within and outside the environment of the research for effective and safe relationship with the study group. Arising ethical constraints can be managed by adopting the use of collaborative strategies that aim at involving all the stakeholders in the process alongside creating awareness to the study population (McCrady & Bux, 1999).

Resources required

The success of the research is highly dependent on the availability of adequate resources. Resources range from the human efforts needed by the interventional program to financial and equipment needs. Among the key resources that will determine the outcomes of the study inadequate financial support from the parties involved in the study. Adequate financial support ensures a constant supply of the basic requirements influencing the progress and outcomes of the study. Equipment for creating awareness among the members of the target community and the target population…[continue]

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