Ethics of Human Cloning Two Major Types Essay

Download this Essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Essay:

Ethics of Human Cloning

Two Major Types of Cloning

In the 1980 epoch, numerous scientists initiated researching formulas of cloning the high order animals, particularly mammals (Kass 2002, p. 7). The heightening success of their research and experiments has resulted into pervasive discussion over the probability of human cloning. This discussion has elicited extensive disagreements within the scientific society and the entire public over whether the research of human cloning is right. The two major techniques of cloning animals of higher order are subject to widespread scientific study.

One method occurs naturally to some humans when a woman bears triplets or twins. This occurs when the zygote or fertilized egg, when in the initial development stages divides into detached units (McLaren, 2002 p. 25). These parts then grow into identical and genetically matching persons. Scientists stimulated such an artificial process in cattle. Researchers in Washington DC conducted trials on human twinning by artificial means. The researchers willingly performed cloning on embryos that were genetically abnormal and had no survival chances.

Nuclear transplantation is the other cloning technique. In this method, the cloning specialist transfers the nucleus of a living cell to an egg or fuses the nucleus with it. The egg itself does not have a nucleus. When most people discuss the issue of human cloning, they envisage use of some sort of nuclear transplantation. Since September 2000, this activity has never or no one knows if it has ever occurred (McLaren, 2002 p. 39). For a long period, numerous scientists have affirmed that application of nuclear transplantation to build a clone from a mature mammal cell was impractical due to alarming biological obstructions. Since all mammalian cells contain similar complete genetic information as the foremost-fertilized egg, they have developed to specialization. When cells develop, some genetic information is regularly turned on and off for the formation of skin cells, nerve cells, blood cells and other kinds of cells.

The major barricade to scientists' success in cloning human beings was the lack of knowledge of assimilating and reprogramming cells. Their aim would be subdividing a cell, developing it into a whole animal, and not reprogramming the cell to produce more cells. In 1980 and 1990, scientists managed to clone mammalian cells through nuclear transplantation, but the experiments they performed used cell nucleus from developing embryo and not from grown animals (McLaren, 2002, p. 35).

Early in 1997, various researchers from Scotland shocked the world by affirming that their team had successfully cloned a sheep by application of nuclear transplantation (Kass, 2002 p. 73). The clone, referred as Dolly had three female parents. The scientists used the nucleus of a cell from an udder of one sheep and fused it with another enucleated egg from the second female and the inseminated the resultant embryo into the uterus of the third sheep. Immediately, Dolly became renowned and a celebrity. She reproduced through normal reproductive processes proving that she was a complete functional unit.

The scientists who architecture Dolly refuted intention of cloning human beings, claiming the purpose of their imminent research was to boost methods of bulk production of genetically matching animals. The announcement however fueled public criticism centered on the issue of cloning humans. A poll stipulated that a majority of people greatly disapproved cloning of human beings. Numerous scientists and bioethicists were firmly disapproving human cloning. The Roman Catholics summoned a global ban on human cloning. President Clinton initiated a federal funding of research on cloning.

Responding to the heightened public concern, the NBAC, an expert team that Clinton created to explore and study ethical concerns surrounding the biotechnology body got into task to investigate the matter. After receiving testimonies from ethicists, religious bodies, scientists and other parties, NBAC suggested a five-year continuation of the announced federal funding on cloning research that cloning specialists had designed to form a human child (Kass, 2002 p. 65). NBAC further announced a cessation of research on cloning of human tissues and cells.

Ethical Questions

The ethical queries numerous people have raised regarding human cloning pose on several levels. Some opposition surrounds the safety of the human cloning experimental procedures. Cloning is nevertheless not a foolproof process. Scientists took 277 trials to form Dolly (MacKinnon, 2001, p.3). The fused egg gametes did not develop successfully and in other cases, the fused gametes had abnormalities that appeared hazardous during gestation. The instance of a dichotomous success/failure ratio…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Ethics Of Human Cloning Two Major Types" (2013, June 17) Retrieved December 7, 2016, from

"Ethics Of Human Cloning Two Major Types" 17 June 2013. Web.7 December. 2016. <>

"Ethics Of Human Cloning Two Major Types", 17 June 2013, Accessed.7 December. 2016,

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Cloning the Debate About Human Cloning Was

    Cloning The debate about human cloning was carried out within the field of science fiction and fantasy, until recently. With the victorious cloning of the sheep Dolly in 1997, it became obvious that earlier or later, scientists might be able to clone human beings too. There is both encouragement and disagreement for this likelihood. Though cloning has been explained by newspapers and magazines as an exhilarating step onward that allows genetic

  • Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem

    Although these stem cells are only a few years old, they possess unlimited potential in terms of clinical research. Specifically, scientists are focusing their potential uses in transplant medicine in order to significantly reduce the level of both infections and overall organ rejection in organ transplant surgery. The potential for using stem cells is of vast clinical and medical importance. These cells could potentially allow scientists to learn what occurs

  • Against Human Cloning for Many

    Also, human cloning can be compared to slavery, for the clone is nothing more than a product, much like a slave under the control of its master. In addition, human cloning will create an identity crisis within the cloned individual. For example, a child might be born with only one biological parent, due to the fact that the clone is an exact duplicate of the donor. Also, the clone could

  • Genome Human Cloning Human Cloning

    (iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of

  • Cloning Today Man Has Progressed

    "Animals that are experiencing dwindling numbers could be cloned to prevent their extinction. Taiwanese scientists claimed to have made five clones of an endangered pig to save this species" (Anonymous). While some say man should not play God there are others like Edmund Erde who disagree and say that "playing God" is a phrase that is "muddle-headed" and "nonsensical" and should be deserted (Edmund Erde, p.594). For those who

  • Human Genome Project May Be

    Since the antigens are closely linked to race and ethnicity, it is much easier to find a biological match among people with similar ethnic and racial backgrounds than it is among any two randomly selected individuals. On the basis of tissue matching, organs from blacks will almost always go to blacks and organs from whites will almost always go to whites. Blacks, however, have a much higher incidence of

  • Genetics Research and Ethics Related to the

    genetics research and ethics related to the topic of human cloning. Specifically, we review a publication co-authored by Kuppuswamy, Macer, Serbulea & Tobin (2007) entitled " Is Human Reproductive Cloning Inevitable: Future Options for UN Governance." The central theme of this article is to distinguish two major types of cloning that are possible with contemporary genetic technology. The article outlines the issues and controversies surrounding each cloning type, and

Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved