D., What is Altitude Training section). The Website promoting products that Hypoxico Altitude Training Systems offers, reports that when a person is exposed to hypoxia, oxygen reduced environments, his/her body "struggles to produce required amounts of energy with less available oxygen. This struggle triggers the onset of a range of physiological adaptations geared towards enhancing the efficiency of the body's respiratory, cardiovascular and oxygen utilization systems" (Hypoxico Altitude Training, N.D., Why it Works section). In consideration of controversial perceptions regarding ethical conclusions relating to hypoxico, Lippi, Guides and Franchini stress that the "spirit of sport" needs to be developed to include the notion of ethics and authenticity. Lippi, Guides and Franchini, nevertheless, report that they do not entirely agree with the assumption that teleologically, no evidence suggests that more harm than good comes from these particular devices. They note that a universal ban on passive training regimens, such as hypoxic, however, appears inconsistent with current and past practice in soirts,
Richard a. Posner (2008), Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals; Senior Lecturer, University of Chicago Law School, purports in "The case against perfection: Ethics in the age of genetic engineering," that as it will become harder to detect, "sports doping," where athletes use performance-enhancing drugs, will ultimately resort to genetic alteration. Posner notes that in addition to temporarily residing at an extremely high altitude in order to increase one's red blood corpuscles, some athletes regularly use drugs, along with a number of alternative methods to enhance their athletic performance. Non-doping substitutes for drugs includes weight lifting for steroids. Grit and determination, as a choice over steroids, serve as innate for an athlete having good physical coordination. These two positive characteristics affect an athlete's place in the majority of sports hierarchies. "Weight lifting requires grit, patience, and determination" (¶ 12), Posner stresses. The use of steroids does not require these positive character traits.
Kevin P. Ward a graduate student at Logan University, in Chesterfield, Missouri, and R. Scott Kretchmar (2008), Professor of sport and exercise science at the Pennsylvania State University, explain the unethical practice of stalling in the article, "An integrated approach to an undergraduate kinesiology curriculum a case study about stalling in wrestling: Specialized disciplines offer multiple perspectives on sport and exercise questions, but how can they be integrated?," Stalling "often involves the deception of an official in an effort to win a match, it is reasonable to link a high ego perspective with a propensity to stall," Ward and Kretchmar assert (Sport psychology section, ¶ 3). Ward and Kretchmar note that the goal perspective, the manner whereby a person judges his/her competence and perceives success intimately relates to self-efficacy.
The achievement goal theory reflects task and ego orientations, two primary goal perspectives which impact how athletes perceive achievement and how these components guide the athlete's actions. Athletes who possess a high ego perspective reportedly focus more on the adequacy of their ability, along with the demonstration of their superior competence compared to that of other individuals. High-ego-perspective athletes also frequently think that deception contributes to their success. As stalling regularly includes the athlete deceiving an official, with the intent to win a match, Ward and Kretchmar (2008) assert, linking a high ego perspective with a propensity to stall proves reasonable. The "mutual quest for excellence, on the other hand, proves to be a reasonable ideal for sport. When the athlete makes a point to adhere to particular rules of a game, the quest for excellence is enhanced.
Crystal Proenza (2008) reports, however, that too often in the contemporary sports field, the quest for excellence is nullified. In the article, "Honesty: Still the best policy: Accounts of cheating and stealing scandals are everywhere. Now many people are asking, "does being honest really matter?," Proenza states that one study linked approximately 90 Major League Baseball players to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly steroids. Authorities charged Barry Bonds, one of baseball's home-run kings, for perjury and obstruction of justice after he reportedly lied to investigators about his personal steroid use (Proenza, 2008, ¶ 1). After admitting to using steroids prior to completion, another sports figure, Marion Jones, a U.S. track star, returned five medals she had won at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia Proenza, 2008, ¶ 2).
Robert W. Foster, PE ((2005) of Hopkinton, Massachusetts, points out in "Games and ethics," however, concerns regarding unethical drug use in the Olympic Games is not restricted to the U.S. "At least two dozen athletes at the 2004 Games had their medals taken away after competition, or were disqualified before competing, for having failed the tests for doping or for having refused to submit to the testing (tantamount to failing) (Foster, ¶ 2). Controversy reportedly occurred as, according to some sources, the rules regarding drug testing may not have been enforced uniformly during the 2004 Olympics.
Foster (2005) stresses that in each instance, the ethical thing to do is to completely test the sports participants or do not test any of them. An ethical consideration exists that needs to be addressed may be applied to sports or to any profession: "Is it OK to break the rules since "everybody is doing it"?... The "everybody does it" argument applies to many areas of activity it's always easy to justify the wrong thing when it seems to be common practice" (Foster, ¶ 7). Foster purports that the constancy of ethics needs consideration, with the determination of whether wrong constitutes wrong or that wrong may be justified at times.
In light of recurring reports of breaches of ethics in the U.S., Proenza (2008) cites Patricia Harned, president of the Ethics Resource Center, to assert the U.S. is experiencing an ethics crisis. William C. Rhoden, a sports columnist for the New York Times, albeit, asserts that people today are not necessarily more dishonest than those in previous generations. He contends, however, that the ability to catch cheaters has dramatically increased.
On the sports playing fields, McNamee and Fleming (2007), assess, unethical practices seem to flourish in the boardrooms of international business. Although wrongdoing in sports has been practiced for ages, during the past decade, due to the global community, a myriad of affirmations regarding match-fixing in cricket, charges of fraud in horse racing, and reported financial misdeeds involving the transfer of players in soccer have regularly been noted. In addition, numerous scandals concerning the Olympic bidding process have surfaced.
According to McNamee and Fleming (2007), ethics consists of the wide scope of moral agreements, obligations, norms, principles, rules and values. "In sports, McNamee and Fleming purport:
Philosophers and social scientists have often been concerned with ethical discussion of individual behaviours (sic) such as the in/defensibility of "diving" in football or what rights children have in relation to coaches. There has also been consideration of those personal characteristics that physical educators and sports coaches have attempted to develop -- virtues such as courage, fairness, honesty and respect; and those which ought to be challenged and eradicated -- vices such as arrogance, dishonesty, racism and sexism (McNamee & Fleming, 2007, p. 426).
Along with these particular aspects of the ethics of sports, along with corporate governance, equity has also become a prominent component of ethics, as it essentially trades on the perception of social justice. McNamee and Fleming (2007) contend that considering that justice in sporting activities and games refers to the ideal of fair play may proves helpful in understanding the concept of ethics. The observance of the rules, along with the philosophy of the specific game encounter, is partially designed to allocate an equal opportunity for each individual concerned.
Respect at the individual level, according to McNamee and Fleming (2007), constitutes one of a number of individual or personal values that develop the way that the individual experiences the organization as an employee. Other values include "honesty, integrity and personal commitment" (McNamee & Fleming, 2007, p. 431). On the social level, equity consists of a recognition of shared purposes that reflect the perception that the inescapable reality of a sense of diversity may not be ignored in the 21st Western liberal democracies. Responsibility on the political level builds on the contention that exploring the individuals in social context will not be complete unless the political dimension of the individuals' organizational role, along with the conduct both as individuals and, collectively, as an organization is properly recognized. McNamee and Fleming predict that during the 21st century, sports' organizations will take the recognition of ethics and equity more closely and consciously to heart.
Teaching Values through Sports
In the United States, Angela Lumpkin (2008) a professor is the Department of Health, Sport and Exercise Sciences at the University of Kansas, notes in the article, "Teaching values through youth and adolescent sports," sports have reportedly reflected societal values, as well as instilled these values in athletes. Through participation in sports, many parents believe, young people will learn how to cooperate with others; how to play…