Ethnographic Study of Chinese Women essay

Download this essay in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from essay:

They treasure what they have been lost since becoming destitute and homeless. On the opposite, American removes coming forward mostly. They yearn native land is actually for the memories about childhood which has gone forever. At the same time, the future is waiting for them in a broad space faraway." (Bai, 2007)

V. DIFFERENCES in EDUCATION

The work of Price and Briley (1999) entitled: "Culture, Education and Cognition: A Review and Discussion of Chinese vs. American Cognitive Styles" relates a study in which proposed is that..."that differences in the education practices prevalent in China and America are an important source of cognitive differentiation, and suggest that future research could benefit from greater exploration of 'experienced educational style'." Price and Briley relate that based upon the literature in the area of developmental psychology Price and Briley's study presents: "...an integrated model of cognitive development that appreciates both the influence of the individual's maturation process and the influence of society, as manifested particularly within the educational system. An important implication of the model is that school systems provide a natural arena for studying cross-cultural differences in cognition." (1999)

VI. DIFFERENCES in ROLES of WOMEN

The work of Jensia (2008) entitled: "The Role of Women in Chinese Culture" relates that in order to understand the culture that affects Chinese women and their roles it is "helpful to consider the overall development of Chinese culture and history. Although numerous scholars have attempted to explore Chinese culture and development, it is evident that the mystery surrounding this culture remains a pervasive part of modern understanding of China." The work of Wei (1947) relates "Through many centuries and up until recent times, the Chinese have developed their own civilization in almost complete isolation from the rest of the world except for the most casual contacts, and that only when their civilization had practically taken its definite shape." Around 200 B.C. China was acknowledged as a "...unified country with one culture. Michael (1986) notes of China: "Having established their social order, the Chinese came to regard their system as the most civilized form of human communal existence. In the interplay between theirs and neighboring cultures, Chinese order came to influence and dominate the adjacent countries of Central, East, and Southeast Asia..." (Jensia, 2008)

The work of Knapp (1992) notes the view of women as problematic in relation to the larger view of society and religion as stated is "Because women represented a threat to the stability of the monastic communities and the discipline practiced therein, chastity was emphasized" and Knapp further emphasizes that with the spread of Confucianism the attitude toward women grew even more restrictive in nature and women were viewed as mere "sexual commodities" for men. (Jensia, 2008) the system of patriarchy which developed during China's Imperial age made it all but impossible for women to gain any actual control over their lives or over their bodies. It is written in an ancient Chinese text as follows:

If a husband does not control his wife, then the rules of conduct manifesting his authority are abandoned and broken. If a wife does not serve her husband, then the proper relationship (between men and women) and the natural order of things are neglected and destroyed. As a matter of fact the purpose of these two (the controlling of women by men, and the serving of men by women) is the same." (Jensia, 2008)

This ensured that the patriarchal system would be perpetuated through the control of women and it was viewed that this was the sole method of preserving the Chinese society. Traditionally, women in China did not receive even the most basic of educations however Knapp reports that "Some liberal scholarly families encouraged their daughters to develop their intellects, but most women lived in the seclusion of domestic duties, incarcerated behind walls and curtains." (1992) the view of girls was that they were a burden to the family resulting in the practice of infanticide. Men were traditionally allowed to travel about in China while women were kept in the home and lived a "barriered existence, both physically and symbolically." (Knapp, 1992)

The history of modern China reveals that the culture had historically developed in a manner and within a context that "was quite restrictive to women." (Jensia, 2008) the work of Wolf (1985) examined the development of women in modern China and relates that while there are "...a host of traditional rules and customs that still mitigate the role and action of women in China, women have taken a more proactive role in carving out a clear "space" for themselves." As well, the 'Three Obedience' governing women's behavior is still very much in effect and includes the following three:

1) as an unmarried girl a woman must obey her father and her brothers;

2) as a married woman she must obey her husband; and 3) as a widow she must obey her adult sons" (Wolf, 1985)

VII. DIFFERING METHODS of GAINING INFLUENCE

Jensia (2008) notes: "Women of the past and the present have been able to control their lives and their families by asserting a quite pressure that allows the dominant male to remain in place. Through this process women are able to carve out niches for themselves that provide them with a sense of security. Further women are able to make critical decisions by manipulating the behaviors and actions of their husbands and sons. Thus, while women are not formally in control, it is evident that they wield considerable power over their husbands and sons. This power translates into the ability to garner control and stability in a culture that does little to protect the needs and rights of the female." (Jensia, 2008)

The work of Karin Aguilar-San Juan published in the Foreword of the work entitled: "Dragon Ladies: Asian-American Feminists Breathe Fire" relates that "The first wave of Asian women's organized formed out of the Asian-American movement of the 1960s, which in turn was inspired by the Civil Rights movement and the anti-Viet Nam War movement." Shah (1997) notes that Leftists Asian women "...in Yellow Power and other Asian-American groups often found themselves left out of the decision-making processes and their ideas and concerns regulated to 'women's auxiliary' groups that were marginal to the larger projects at hand." However, this has changed because "with fewer and fewer class interests to divide them (Asian-American women) are shaping a new movement, one that goes beyond just agitating for [their] little piece of the ever-shrinking pie. They are putting poor immigrant and refugee Asian women at the forefront of their organizing, thinking globally, and they are making the connections among the politics of labor, health, environment culture, nationalism, racism and patriarchy." (Shah, 1997)

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

Differences in the experience of American and Chinese women have been noted in this study to include the strictness of the Chinese culture and the restrictions historically and traditionally placed upon Chinese women as compared to American women. These restrictions are noted even in Chinese-American families in that the majority of Chinese families disallow their female children to have a boyfriend and often make the choice of spouse for these female children. Chinese girls are not allowed to wear makeup and are expected to follow the 'Three Obediences' as noted in this study.

Other differences noted in this ethnographic study of the Chinese and American cultures in relation to the role of females has also noted that in the Chinese culture the roles of women and in fact of all members of the culture is one that is very defined and hierarchal in nature. Furthermore, the Chinese culture is one that is highly patriarchal. In the Chinese culture, the husband is expected to possess control over his wife because without this control the proper relationship that should exist between men and women in view of the Chinese culture is broken and the result is destruction of what is considered to be the natural order. Clearly, it is noted in the work of Shah (1997) the Chinese-American woman has collectively made headway in making their own mark in the Chinese-American culture however, it is related that there is still much progress to be made by the women in this culture that is highly restrictive and in which the male very much maintains control of the female members of his household.

Bibliography

Price, Lydia J. And Briley, Donnel a. (1999) Culture, Education and Cognition: A Review and Discussion of Chinese vs. American Cognitive Styles. Jun 1999. Institutional Repository - the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Library. Online available at http://repository.ust.hk/dspace/handle/1783.1/1024

Of all the Difference Between Chinese and American Culture, Which One Do You Think is the Most" (2007) Bai. 21 Aug 2007. Online available at http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/31830409.html

Zheng, Yin-xiao, and Cui, Ruo-nan (2008) Luckhohn and Strodbeck's Value Model in Chinese and American Culture. Sino-U.S. English Teaching. Vol. 5, No. 4 April 2008. Online available at http://www.linguist.org.cn/doc/su200804/su20080412.pdf

Asian…[continue]

Cite This Essay:

"Ethnographic Study Of Chinese Women" (2008, October 28) Retrieved December 9, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/ethnographic-study-of-chinese-women-27267

"Ethnographic Study Of Chinese Women" 28 October 2008. Web.9 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/ethnographic-study-of-chinese-women-27267>

"Ethnographic Study Of Chinese Women", 28 October 2008, Accessed.9 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/ethnographic-study-of-chinese-women-27267

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Women and Patriarchy

    Women and Patriarchy Across the world, the secondary position of women in society remains a virtual constant. This preferential treatment for men is embedded in social and political structures in various countries and societies. This paper examines how patriarchal structures remain in three important social structures - marriage, household and family life, and in the economy. The first part of the paper compares the marriage practices among the Yanomamo Indians in northern Brazil,

  • Application of Ethnographic Methods

    Practicing Ethnographic Methods JFK (John F. Kennedy) International Airport is one of the busiest international airports in the United States and serves as a gateway for the New York City and other Tri-State within the metropolitan regions. Apart from enjoying services from the Jet Blue, and Virgin America, the JFK airport is the major destination for visitors from various continents such as Europe, South America, Asia, Middle East and Africa. The

  • Gender Inequality in Hong Kong Wage Discrimination

    Gender Inequality in Hong Kong Wage discrimination is the discrepancy of wages between two groups due to a bias towards or against a specific trait with all other characteristics of both groups being equivalent. In the case of gender inequality, wage discrimination exists between the male and female gender. Historically, gender inequality has favored men over similarly qualified women (Kwong, 1999). In Hong Kong, Article 19 of the Bill of Rights

  • Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes

    The organization of the five chapters in the study includes: Chapter I: Chapter I includes the design of the study, the study's research problem and three research questions, study objectives, the scope and limitations of the study, significance of the study of DNA, research methodology and philosophy of the studies from different related literature. Chapter II: During Chapter II, the researcher presents information to address the first research question; presented in

  • Child Han China s One Child

    Ethnographic/Social Considerations Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period

  • Creative Writing in English Singapore

    Over time British rule affected every aspect of life in Singapore including education. Gupta (1998) explains that "The educational impact of the political developments was essentially a move from the private to the public. As the British government became increasingly directly involved in Singapore, an education policy began to develop (Bloom 1986, Gupta 1994). In the early years education was largely in the hands of private organisations, churches, and charitable bodies.

  • Sla Second Language Aquisition as

    The researcher observed the following conclusions about conversation analysis The use of a conversation-analytical transcription is important because it pinpoints details which are essential for understanding code-switches and the negotiation of roles and relations (Steensig 2004). The method also provided a detailed analysis of what it is pertinent for each participant to do at precise points in the interaction (Steensig 2004). This is critical to comprehending the context in which events such


Read Full Essay
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved