Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Term Paper:
This problem was solved in the following way: the program uuencode which is used by email-clients transforms its binary code (code of bits and bytes) into text code using ASCII table principle and it's send in the form of text character set in the following form (begin file name reports text translated binary body end). The recipient's email-client executes uudecode program and transforms it to binary primary code.
Telnet is a program for computer networks that use TCP/IP, for example Internet. It allows terminal emulation, as it connects user's computer to a networks' server. This program which works in console mode allows to manage the controll over server as if the commands were executed on the server computer initially, as well as it allows to control, communicate and do data exchange with other computers and servers. Telecom uses identification policies as username and password and allows control of web servers remoutely.
IRC or Internet Relay Chat client programs where one of the first in the sphere of online communication technological products that appeared on software markets. The principle of its functioning is pretty much looks like one of the email, as the process of data exchange between two different computers is realized by the use of special server which redirects data.
After installing IRC client program on the computer, user can log on IRC server and start chatting after he picks a nickname to register. IRC servers have hundreds of channels, that refer to the different topics and users' interests. The name of every channel starts with #.
IRC was one of the earliest ways of communication, nowadays it's mostly substituted by chat client programs as ICQ, MSN instant messenger and other "messengers," which allow more functions and allow to set a variety of individual settings for comfortable world. But al them use pretty similar technology, used by IRC.
FTP or a File Transfer Protol is a standard protocol of Internet and is considered to be the easiest and the simplest way for file exchange on Internet between computers. FTP uses the same network features as other internet protocols: SMTP, HTTP, which are TCP/IP features. FTP is used mainly for web pages transferring from their developer to the web-server, which will host them for general public use online. FTP is used as well for software downloading, downloading of different files from server to the user's computer.
FTP can be used from different sources: either from MS-DOS command prompt menu in Windows start menu, or from a special commercial software product with graphic user oriented interface. Web browsers make FTP requests as well for downloading files; generally public use files can be accessed by using anonymous FTP.
According to the article FTP (available at (http://www.scit.wlv.ac.uk/~jphb/comms/)FTP session can be divided into 5 elements:
This provides a user interface and drives the client protocol interpreter.
This is the client protocol interpreter. It issues commands to the remote server protocol interpreter and it also drives the client data transfer process.
This is the server protocol interpreter which responds to commands issued by the client protocol interpreter and drives the server data transfer process.
This is the client data transfer process responsible for communicating with the server data transfer process and the local file system.
This is the server data transfer process responsible for communicating with the client data transfer process and the remote file system.
FTP is realized in the following way: there are established two network connections between protocol interpreter (control connection) and DTP (data connection), both of them use TCP. FTP server uses port 21 for establishing control connection requests, but it happens that a clients is sending a request message which determines the port number on which the client wants to receive the data. The use of two separate connections allows to avoid major networking problems: the lose of information, signal delay, etc. FTP allows to send the information not just to client but to server as well.
Starting from the year of 1990 there appeared Internet search engines and the first of them was Archie, a product developed at Mc Gill University in Montreal.
Gopher was a software application for viewing and downloading hierarchically organized text files from Internet servers to the user's computer.Used basically in universities Gopher was the forefather of HTTP protocol. Gopher browsers were simple text file viewers, without anything similar to high-advanced features, but still Gopher browsers were able to download graphic images from Gopher file directories. Gopher system used two basic tools as search engines: Veronica and Jughead. After the release of HTTP Gopher lost its actuality and was quickly replaced by www's HTTP.
Veronica being an integral component of Gopher's interface made possible to search on file directories by the use of key words, and specific file names. Jughead was not so effective as Veronica search engine as it worked only for high menu and did not include in its search file name menus.
World Wide Web
Web browsers remain to be the only popular and widely spread tool for viewing the interpreted HTML code in the form of electronic documents.
Internet explorer was introduced in 1995 as an integral component of Windows 95 (Microsoft Corporation). Since nearly a decade of being used as browser it won the sympathies of PC users and is considered to be the most popular and used browser, because of its advantages compared to similar products:
It's included for free into Microsoft Windows starting from 95 version;
It allows to launch programs relatively quick;
It supports different kinds of multimedia technologies that are not realized or realized, but not fully in other browsers (ActiveX, CSS1/CSS2, floating frames, etc.);
It allows "democracy" of code interpretation: while downloading document which has unknown structures or errors, Internet explorer in most of cases simply does not display them, while Netscape may simply not show the whole document;
It has full integrability with other Windows applications;
It has graphics zooming features, opened in a separate window;
But there are disadvantages as well. The most spread are:
Instability of work;
Average downloading speed.
Netscape Communicator was released in 1993 by Netscape Communications Corporations and could claim for being monopolist on browser's market, but it quickly faced competition in the face of Internet explorer. Thus, it was rather popular browser up to late 1990 ies (the survey tells that 80% of users chose Netscape in 1995), it started to lose customers as I.E. began to modernize.
The main advantages of Netscape are the following:
Relatively small size of the program;
Extended email control system;
Improved external data organization;
Support of skin change technology;
No support for certain types of interactive technologies, recommended by W3C Consortium;
Low work speed;
Low launching speed.
Opera Software company (Oslo, Norway) developed their browser in 1994 for Norwich telecommunication company Telenor, which later became popular as it made able to execute Internet application on computers of different level, both professional and home. Its mean concept criteria were: minimal launch time, small size, minimal system requirements.
That's why Opera has basic differences from other browsers:
Minimal system requirements;
High downloading speed of HTML documents;
Extended control features;
High zooming features of viewing documents;
But at the same time there certain disadvantages of Opera:
Absence of national encoding features;
Besides traditionally accepted browsers there exist a lot of others, mainly developed for academic purpopes in order to study networking and process of data exchange between computer and server. One of this browsers is Lynx, primary developed for UNIX and VMS platforms. it's realized through cursor-adressable programs that allow emulation and use of terminals (they include VT100 and emulation softare as Procomm, Kernit). This browser is simple text viewer, it doesn not have such advanced features as I.E. Or Nescape Navigator have, as it was developed for academic use.
Internet search engine is one of the most powerful and power ways to search information, as the capability of Internet is nearly unlimited and its possible to find the answer on only question asked. Search engines have different meanings either for users of internet or for the web developers, for the first group search engines in the tool for information search, while for web developers its the main instrument to increase traffic results. In recent years most of powerful search engines had incorporated with web portals as they offer dual opportunity for information search: using key words or using key directories and groups. Nowadays the most popular and the most powerful search engines are the following: Yahoo, Goggle and AltaVista.
Goggle is one of the most powerful web search engines, as it proves to find the biggest number of web-pages for the requested topic, besides it allows to search in files and imagines, which is important as well. According to the article Major…[continue]
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