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In summary, observational preexperience had differential effects on the timing of subsequent contingency performance of infants (p. 693)."
This research supports the potential for vicarious learning as a pre-emptor to juvenile delinquency when the family, academic, and social conditions are reflective of the elements that reflect a lack of structure, participation in community, poverty, and poor education systems that are not financed to provide the infrastructure in a child's early years.
4. Explain your understanding of Baumrind's Typology of Parenting Styles. Based on your understanding of the parenting styles described by Baumrind, which style of parenting style is most effective? Which is the least effective style of parenting? Why? Be sure to support your answer.
Diana Baumrind discussed parenting types, the authoritarian parent, the permissive parent and the authoritative parent (Grolnick, W., 2003, p. 5). Baumrind's description of the parenting styles is:
The authoritarian parent attempts to shape, control, and evaluate the child using set standards. He or she values obedience first and foremost and uses forceful measures to inculcate desired behavior. This parent does not encourage verbal give and take but prefers that the child accept his or her word for what is right. This type of parent tends to enforce rules firmly, confronts and sanctions negative behavior on the part of the child, and discourages independence and individuality. He or she also tends to be rejecting, although Baumrind did identify some authoritarian parents who were less so.
The authoritative parent, on the other hand, attempts to direct the child in a rational, issue-oriented manner. He or she encourages verbal give and take, provides reasons for her decisions, and solicits the child's opinions. This parent, like the authoritarian parent, firmly enforces rules and is willing to confront misbehavior, yet, in contrast, he or she encourages independence and individuality. The permissive parent is nonpunitive, accepts the child's impulses, and is unlikely to intervene by curbing them. He or she also responds to the child in an affirmative way. This parent imposes few demands, and thus the child has few household responsibilities. The permissive parent does not enforce rules firmly and tends to ignore or excuse misbehavior but, like the authoritative parent, encourages independence and individuality (pp. 5-6)."
Clearly the best parenting style is the authoritative style, which has a greater parent/child balance in learning, reward, and consequences. It is not overly controlling, which would cause the child to rebel in a destructive way that could lead to "herd" behavior with juvenile delinquents; and it imposes boundaries and requires participation in the family and social environments.
5. Discuss the Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency (UJD) study conducted by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck including purpose, findings, etc. Based on your understanding of this study, present evidence that supports your position regarding the study (i.e. findings are valid or not valid).
Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck studied delinquent personalities. Milton L. Barron (1954) cites the studies by the Glueck's, saying:
One of the most ambitious characterizations of the delinquent personality came out of the work of the Gluecks. 21 the delinquent is distinguishable from the nondelinquent, they claimed, in the following respects: (1) physically, in being mesomorphic in constitution (solid, closely knit, muscular); (2) temperamentally, in being restlessly energetic, impulsive, extroverted, aggressive, destructive (often sadistic); (3) in attitude, by being hostile, defiant, resentful, suspicious, stubborn, socially assertive, adventurous, unconventional, nonsubmissive to authority; (4) psychologically, in tending to direct and concrete, rather than symbolic, intellectual expression, and in being less methodical in his approach to problems (p. 117)."
The personality traits cited by the Gluecks are consistent with other studies, including another cited by Barron, W.I. Thomas, who found that these personality traits are usually found in conditions, social and economic, that have been previously discussed here as conducive to juvenile delinquency: poverty, poor infrastructure in schools and communities, and it lends itself to the same desire in the child to find security, and to identify his or her self in ways separate and apart from the community (p. 117). The child perceives his or her self to be stronger, different, above the social circumstances in which they find themselves, and which they find to be frustrating and confining.
Using the work of the Gluecks and others cited in this Q. And a, we might conclude that the child is finding the society and economic poverty in which they live - and which is most frequently a factor in delinquency - to be like that of a controlling parent against whom the child is trying to rebel to assert themselves. Unfortunately, the child has little understanding of his or her self to behave in a way that is constructive instead of destructive. For the child, the interpretation of destruction is one of expression, since society represents the stifling of his self and is constructive in appearance. Juvenile delinquency is often the product of children who cannot see their own future, and who behave in ways that mitigate the choices they have and make for their future.
Barron, M.L. (1954). The Juvenile in Delinquent Society (1st ed.). New York: Alfred a. Knopf. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=6360952 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000504042
Brannigan, a. (1997). Self-Control, Social Control and Evolutionary Psychology: Towards an Integrated Perspective on Crime. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 39(4), 403-431. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000504042 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110022432
Grolnick, W.S. (2003). The Psychology of Parental Control: How Well-Meant Parenting Backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110022435 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014544319
Rook, L. (2006). An Economic Psychological Approach to Herd Behavior. Journal of Economic Issues, 40(1), 75+. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014544319 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001116573
Weir, C., Soule, S., Bacchus, C., Rael, J., & Schneider, J. (2000). The Influence of Vicarious Reinforcement and Habituation on Contingency Learning in Infants. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 46(4), 693. Retrieved March 17, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001116573[continue]
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"While biological and psychological factors hold their own merit when explaining crime and delinquency, perhaps social factors can best explain juvenile delinquency" which "is a massive and growing problem in America." (http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/english/courses/en205d/student7/stud7proj2.html) Reference: Doggett, a. "Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure" http://facstaff.elon.edu/ajones5/Anika's%20paper.htm Goode: 1994, 1997, 2001, 2005; and Pfohl, Images of Deviance and Social Control, 1985. Social Disorganization at the micro level: Control Theories: Why most don't deviate?" Owner: Robert O. Keel. Last Updated: Monday, October
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