Fanon Frantz Black Skin White essay

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Mannoni's belief that colonial racism is different than other kinds of racism Fanon dismisses as utterly naive: "All forms of exploitation are identical because all of them are applied against the same 'object': man" (88). He next turns to Mannoni's statement that a minority can only have experiences of dependency or inferiority toward the majority (92-93). Fanon spends the remainder of the chapter disproving this claim by engaging with various aspects of Mannoni's argument. He concludes that Mannoni's lacks foundation for his claims.

Fanon focuses this chapter on the observation that only in interaction with the white man is the black man compelled to "experience his being" (109). He argues that, contrary to other claims, this condition is not reciprocal; only the black man suffers from a 3rd person view of himself. Fanon strives to find an identity for the black man outside the parameters of the white man's view. He draws comparisons and contrasts to the black man and the Jew, yet he finds that he still has no identity there. He examines antiquated identities of the black man, his closer connection to the world and his ancient civilizations, and still finds him denied autonomy. In his exploration of black identity he engages Sartre's view that a black man's identity is not formed by himself but that he steps into an identity already created for him (138, 134). Fanon ends his examination in dispair.

P.27 & 40 Discusses Michael Leiris' article, "Martinique-Guadeloupe-Haiti." He believes that Creole language will fade in direct relation to the growth of education gradient and that its adoption serves as a hollow means of revolt against the colonizers. Fanon disagrees; saying that there is a racial difference inherent in the use of Creole as apposed to other dialects that Leriris ignores.

P30 Fanon relates scientific and biblical statements of the Black man's inferiority and disregards the temptation to counter them.

P31 Fanon begins to analyze the white man's use of pigeon English as a means of suppression.

P. 61 Here is a brief introduction to Alfred Adler's Understanding Human Nature. Fanon posits that Adler's beliefs will allow us better understand the "conception of the world held by the Black man.

P. 59 Fanon uses Anna Freud's discussion of ego-withdrawal to support his claim of Black neurosis in relation to the white man.

P. 72 Fanon uses Germaine Guex's, La nevros d'abandon, to support his labeling Jean Veneuse as an abandonment neurotic.

P.96 Quotes Aime Cesaire to disprove Mannoni's failure to acknowledge the colonized person's interwoven relationship with the colonizer.

P.98 Engages with Mannoni's belief that that the black man is unable to become white in the white man's eyes because of his "dependency complex": he defines himself in relation to the white man (98-100).

Moten, Fred. In the Break: the Aesthetics of the Black Radical Tradition. Minneapolis:

Univ. Of Minn. Press, 2003.

Looking at the affiliations between improvisation in music and black radicalism, Moten finds them inseparable. He looks, in the first part of his book, at the novel The Invisible Man. He claims that Ellison uses the book to explore black identity; in the novel, Moten claims that black identity is presented as "a transparent vessel of meanings wholly independent of any influence of the vessel itself" (68). Moten oversets Ellison's the exploration of identity with the qualities of improvisation with which he opens the chapter: a "foreshadowing [ . . .] without constraints of association" (63). Moten claims that Ellison uses incongruent episodes to illustrate aspects of black identity, which he dubs "the blackness of blackness" (70). In the section, "Tonality of Totality," Moten examines the "production of black political sound" in the 1960s through examination of western philosophical thought. Looking again at the qualities of improvisation, Moten examines the interplay of image and sound in the formation of a black musical voice. More riskily, he intimates that such improvisation is actually the "essence" of blackness itself, and that like music this blackness must not only be seen, but also heard if it is to be understood.

P.75 Moten engages with Derrida to elaborate and emphasize the books examination of the binary theme of black identity's being accessible and inaccessible: improvisation.

P.212 An examination of Spivak's Drawing upon and complicating a Marxist analysis of commodity and value, Moten suggests in his introduction that the "freedom drive," a kind of formal resistance to objectification,…[continue]


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