Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Book Report:
Fighting in the Jim Crow Army by Maggie Morehouse
Maggie Morehouse (2007) opines early in Fighting in the Jim Crow Army that the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, wherein America codified "separate-but-equal," was still in effect by the time of WWII. The effects of the Supreme Court decision would impact the lives of black Americans for the next half century -- especially in the armed forces, which were segregated until 1947. Morehouse goes on to detail the trials and complications for black soldiers in the segregated Army, as remembered by the black men and women who lived through those times. This paper will examine the most significant aspects of Morehouse's work, and provide a detailed look at the stories therein that shaped the people and the structure of the 92nd and 93rd all-black active divisions.
Morehouse asserts right away that the policy of segregation "failed to produce military efficiency," (p. 4). Not only was it demoralizing, but it added an economic burden to the military system as well when separate buildings and facilities had to be constructed -- such as those at Ft. Huachuca. However, when Rep. Hamilton Fish introduced a bill in 1940 that "allowed the president to assign men -- white or black -- to various units within the army," Secretary of War Harry Woodring objected that such a measure would demoralize troops and weaken the military infrastructure (p. 4). While Congress stalled to let blacks serve alongside whites, the number of blacks who saw active duty was significantly less than the ratio of blacks to whites among the general population.
Despite the fact that blacks had difficulty simply being able to fight for the United States, Morehouse notes that many of them remained loyal and patriotic. Famous boxer Joe Louis exemplified such characteristics when he said, "There may be a whole lot wrong with America, but there's nothing that Hitler can fix" (p. 8). Such an attitude was not uncommon to find among the black population. Even in 1941 the War Department had issued this statement: "Negroes have been notably a loyal and patriotic group. One of their outstanding characteristics is the single-mindedness of their patriotism" (p. 8). Yet, many critics wondered why blacks should serve in a "segregated army" to defend a racist government.
Indeed, not all blacks were keen to serve. Morehouse cites Lawrence Johnson as one such example. "Lawrence Johnson said he 'did not want to go into the military, period…It wasn't my choice to go in, and when they called me, I didn't expect to be any hero" (p. 17). Johnson was later even nominated for Officer Candidate School, but refused to go. Others, like Conrad Lynn, "reported for duty, but sued" over segregation: "I am ready to serve in any unit of the armed forces of my country which is not segregated by race. Unless I am assured that I can serve in a mixed regiment…I will refuse to report for induction" (p. 18). However, Lynn's case was not victorious.
Not only was the Army segregated, but also it failed to represent the racial diversity of the American population: "In the 1940s, black Americans constituted approximately 10% of the overall population -- 13 million people out of 130 million total. In the military -- predominantly the army -- blacks represented only 5.8% of the total number of servicemen" (p. 27). Black soldiers like Private Charles F. Wilson even wrote directly to President Franklin D. Roosevelt to convey their dislike of the "undemocratic Jim Crow segregation." However, Roosevelt did nothing to desegregate the Army.
Despite opposition, the sustained pressure of rights groups and black protest led to the activation of two black infantry divisions. No longer only serving in mess halls, black soldiers would finally get a chance to fight. One of these was the 93rd Infantry Division. The other was the 92nd.
Morehouse gives some insightful details on the hierarchy of the military at this time. "One black officer in the 93rd commented that the 'so-called southern aristocracy' ran the army" (p. 28). Likewise, Bill Perry noted how little authority black officers were given over whites: "It appeared as if the army never let a black man outrank a white man in any kind of working relationship" (p. 28). Morehouse then observes that Perry was not incorrect: such was "official policy." In the segregated army, blacks could command only blacks.
Plessy v. Ferguson came back to haunt Nelson Peery when MP officers tried in vain to urge him…[continue]
"Fighting In The Jim Crow Army By" (2011, March 20) Retrieved October 21, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/fighting-in-the-jim-crow-army-by-50140
"Fighting In The Jim Crow Army By" 20 March 2011. Web.21 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/fighting-in-the-jim-crow-army-by-50140>
"Fighting In The Jim Crow Army By", 20 March 2011, Accessed.21 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/fighting-in-the-jim-crow-army-by-50140
America at War 1865-Present A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every
" (Adams et al.) What the report went on to show was how a decades long deception was practiced on a race that was viewed primarily as a guinea pig for medical science. The Tuskegee Institute had been established by Booker T. Washington. Claude McKay had passed through there in 1912 to study agriculture (under the patronage of Walter Jekyll, a man who provided the basis for Robert Louis Stevenson's classic horror
History of Multi-Cultural America Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America - Ronald Takaki What was the result of the 1903 Supreme Court Lone Wolf Decision and the 1906 Burke Act? The Lone Wolf Decision came about partly in response to a law passed by Congress in 1902. That law "accelerated the transfer of lands from Indians to whites," according to Takaki (237). The provisions of the 1902 law required that those
African-Americans, who made up roughly 12% of the U.S. population in 2004, held only 10% of state government policy-leader posts last year, Watson reports. The report took note of the fact that under the leadership of New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, a Republican, only 4.8% of leadership positions were held by Blacks, albeit Black citizens make up 16% of New York State's population. In fairness, the report adds
CIVIL WAR UNDERSTANDING THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR The American Civil War represented the largest loss of life in the West during the 100-year period between the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 and World War I in 1914 (McPherson, 2013). The number of Americans who lost their lives in this war is equivalent to the total American lives lost in all other conflicts in this nation's history. Any conflict of that magnitude is bound
Even before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government began targeting Japanese-American businessmen and placing them under arrest. Following Pearl Harbor, the efforts expanded beyond businessmen and targeted the whole of the Japanese community. Executive Order 9066 "set into motion the exclusion from certain areas, and the evacuation and mass incarceration of 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast, most of whom were U.S.
Integrating women into the military, like with African-American men, would also contribute to more cohesive fighting units again serving to promote a united, strong U.S. military organization. Anti-female bias in the military The struggle for equality in the military for women parallels that of African-American men in many other ways. As a direct result of the need for additional "manpower," women's push for better treatment in the military, and a desire