The alteration of the genetic structure of any organism is done by means of Genetic engineering that provides characters beneficial or pleasing to the individual performing the alternation. In other words it is a treatment of the DNA or RNA pool (Sarah. 2002). For instance, the most greatly well-known example of genetic engineering is the sheep Dolly that was cloned in the year 1996. Here, in order to create Dolly, the scientists took out cells from the udder of a pregnant, six-year-old ewe and then these cells were put into not related host eggs that had their DNA separated. Thus, as an alternate of creating one fertilized egg, a reproduction or a duplicate of an adult animal was made (Sarah. 2002).
Dolly; being a living proof where a fertilized egg is divided few times and later the cells of individual are removed from an embryo. Thus, this sheep was a reaction to the cloning and a mixture of awe and cautiousness (Sarah. 2002). In 1999, however, Dolly's cells were discovered to be growing old so quickly that she was expected to become old quicker, sicker and finally die sooner as compared to other sheep (Sarah. 2002).
Lee M. Silver, Princeton microbiologist claimed that in a few centuries time there would be two species of humans comprising a first group, or natural as babies born identical to today's world (Natassja). Whereas the second group is gene enriched, or babies whose parents have acquired or bought them their genes (Natassja).
On the other hand, scientists have predicted that initially treatment for birth flaws, such as cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease, would be discovered being followed by the prevention of heart disease, AIDS and diabetes (Natassja). Though, future diseases like alcohol addiction and mental disease could be cured but at the same time there are many who question as where to draw the line as there are those group of parents who do not allow to change their child's genetic code. While, there is another group who goes against this line (Natassja).
Moral, Ethnical, Biological, Religious Perspective to Genetic Engineering
There are numerous questions that come with genetic engineering for instance, who would be capable to manage genetic manipulation? Or would insurance companies decline or reject to protect a baby who has been pre-screened as well as have a genetic disease? (Sarah. 2002). Here for their argument, both sides of this moral issue use God as on one hand humans have been advised not to play creator. While on the other side God has given humans the intelligence in order to utilize science and technology (Sarah. 2002).
There are brief opinions on cloning by the Americans. For instance, in a 1005 adults poll of Time/CNN, ninety three percent of those surveyed held the opinion that humans should not be cloned while sixty five percent opined that animals should not be cloned either (Clark. 1994). Whereas, a meager seven percent had the opinion that they would ever clone their own selves. There are several countries that have banned cloning, however, at present the United States is not listed among those (Clark. 1994).
The Positive Aspects of Genetic Engineering:
Human beings would be born with no handicaps.
The suffering of human may be lessened by removal of birth defects and genetic-related diseases.
Illnesses and diseases present now may be rare.
Treatment expenditure of genetic illnesses would be much less as compare to now. (Clark. 1994)
The Negative Aspects of Genetic Engineering:
particular kind of character trait individual is most probable to make these options or varieties and determinations, in which, the personality is factual and with no spirituality in terms to humanity and the importance of life.
Nothing to learn if no mistakes committed, resulting to no opportunity for growth related to handicaps.
A new class system might be created since it will be more exposed to the wealthy group.
Genetic predetermination connects 'should be' to the being of human. (Clark. 1994)
Moral, Ethical Aspects:
However, according to anti-technologists and political extremists while giving misinformation, as well as over overstated statements that genetic engineering is not part of the natural order of things (Goetz. 1990). Here the question of moral of genetic engineering could b replied by means of studying human evolution and the notion or concept of survival of the fittest (Goetz. 1990).
Furthermore, the question of ethics and safety can be responded by looking at the present precautions and ethical values of the industry where the concept that as society one requires to comprehend that with the appropriate amount of time and money genetic engineering will help reduce disease and save countless lives without harming the ethical values (Clark. 1994).
Again, the moral question of genetic engineering can be responded by looking at the advances in medicine. As today the advancements in medicine are developing at a tremendously high rate (Goetz. 1990). Thus, if the science of genetic engineering is not correct, then so are the rest of the advances in medicine as genetic engineering if considered is just another form of medical advancement (Goetz. 1990).
However, there are a number of people who do not realize that genetic engineering has an important role in many lives through out the world. Basically, Genetic engineering comprises in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination, gene manipulation, cloning and sperm banks (Goetz. Pg: 178. 1990).
Scientific Procedure with Biological Aspect:
Coming to the biological aspect of genetic engineering, the synthetic insulin available now for the treatment of diabetes has many positive aspects including life span, cost to produce it, and the availability of the amount (Lewin. 1994). This synthetic insulin continue two to three times more than its natural form and even costs considerably less to manufacture rather than take it out from an animal, chiefly pigs. Another advantage is the manufacturing amount. The scientists have to wait for the pigs to get mature enough in order to extract the insulin (Lewin. 1994).
Thus, this is entirely man made synthetic source and as much amount can be manufactured in bulk quantities (Lewin. 1994). This duplication of insulin is just the only way where biotechnology is being used since at present people get synthetic hormones that their body is unable to produce such as thyroid, testosterone, estrogen and growth hormones (Lewin. 1994).
Moreover, another form of genetic engineering is vaccine that has been used for many years. These already protect against disease to some extent, but for a virus like HIV, it has a lot of risk to inject anyone with a vaccine (Lewin. 1994). Thus, biotechnology makes it achievable for many people to live the lives that otherwise would not have been possible without genetic engineering (Lewin. 1994).
In addition, the discovery of DNA was the beginning of genetic engineering. DNA is recognized as deoxyribonucleic acid that carries a living organisms genetic code. Currently, although, the science of biotechnology has developed to a much greater level, however, it is still many steps away from entirely rectifying the damaged or diseased genes (Stableford. 1984). The cause is partially to blame on the unawareness of society, since it believes that genetic engineering is wrong (Stableford. 1984).
Plus, there are some advantages that are used in medicine today; however, the actual gaining will come when genes can be altered more (Stableford. 1984). Thus, the real advantage that will help humankind is when bioengineers will be able to replace a cancer or any other defective gene with that piece of a gene that does not have a weakness in its genetic code (Stableford. 1984). This, new science of genetic engineering plans and intends to take an extraordinary shortcut in the gradual process of evolution (Stableford. 1984).
Well, plants are also part of being genetically engineered where this kind of genetic engineering is more generally accepted. The question is why? Since it is not different for any plant to be able to fight off pests then it is for any human being to be able to fight off diseases. This leads to again contradiction, since the society approves for a plant to be genetically engineered but not a human (Stableford. 1984).
One of the most important things that any society needs to realize is the capability of genetic engineering, as the gene manipulation will not be use for any other reason or with any other intension other than for the treatment and elimination of disease. For instance, if one visualizes what parents of a child who is dying from a disease like multiple sclerosis might think about the advantages of genetic engineering. Then, the question of moral and ethical aspects can be answered (George.2001).
Cloning, which is another form of genetic engineering is not accepted as morally right as for instance, in order to clone a human heart scientists do not have to clone the whole person since they only require to clone the heart by itself while this process of cloning would eliminate transplants as well as the use of anti-rejection drugs. However, it is wrong to clone a whole…