However, bowel movements were more frequent during the high-fiber than during the control diet." (Nutrition Research Newsletter, 2002)
The work of Ruixing, et al. (2007) entitled: "Comparison of Demography, Diet, Lifestyle, and Serum Lipid Levels between the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han Populations" states that dyslipidemia is a condition "...in which there is an abnormal lipid or lipoprotein concentration. It is well-known that dyslipidemia is determined by genetic, demographic, and lifestyle factors." (Ruixing, et al., 2007)
It is reported that "...High levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein B (apoB) and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are correlated with the progression of atherosclerosis and a higher incidence of coronary artery disease (CHD). To prevent the development of these diseases, a great deal of research has been focused on determining the relationship between these lipid phenotypes and dietary intake and lifestyle in different ethnic groups ."
Ruixing et al. (2007) reports a study involving 1,170 subjects of Bai Ky Yao residing in Lihu and Baxu villages in Nadan County, Guingxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China who were surveyed "by a stratified randomized cluster sampling. The study is stated to show that "...the levels of serum TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, apoA-I, and apoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han Chinese. Hyperlipidemia was positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and total energy and total fat intakes and negatively associated with physical activity level and total dietary fiber intake in both ethnic groups..." (Ruixing, et al., 2007)
The work of Ganji and Kuo (2008) entitled: "Serum Lipid Responses to Psyllium Fiber: Differences between Pre -- and Post-Menopausal, Hypercholesterolemic Women" reports a study in which eleven post-menopausal and eight pre-menopausal women with serum total cholesterol consumed "their habitual diet and 15 g psyllium/d for 6 weeks. Psyllium was incorporated into cookies" with each cookie containing 5 g of psyllium fiber. It is reported that post-menopausal women and pre-menopausal hyper cholesterolemic women responded differently to psyllium fiber supplementation." (Gangi and Kuo, 2008) Specifically, it is stated that post-menopausal women would benefit from addition of psyllium to their diets in reducing the risk for heart diseases." (Gangi and Kuo, 2008)
The work of Cater and Garg (2007) entitled: "The Effect of Dietary Intervention on Serum Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus" states that dietary therapy is "the cornerstone of lipid management in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key strategies are the reduction of intake of saturated fat, trans-unsaturated fat and cholesterol, and the reduction of energy intake to promote weight loss." (Cater and Garg, 2007) Cater and Garg (2007) state that this approach "will produce significant improvements in the serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein (HDL)
The work of Queenan, et al. (2007) entitled: "Concentrated Oat Beta-Gluan, A Fermentable Fiber, Lowers Serum Cholesterol in Hypercholesterolemic Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial" reports that soluble fibers "lowers serum lipids, but are difficult to incorporate into products acceptable to consumers." Reported is a study in which 75 health hypercholesterolemic men and women were "randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 6 grams/day concentrated oat beta-glucan or 6 grams/day dextrose (control). Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, week 3, and week 6 and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP). To estimate colonic fermentability, 0.5g concentrated oat beta-glucan was incubated in a batch model intestinal fermentation system, using human fecal inoculum to provide representative microflora. Fecal donors were not involved with the beta-glucan feeding trial. Inulin and guar gum were also incubated in separate serum bottles for comparison." (Queenan, et al., 2007)
The study concluded that "Six grams concentrated oat beta-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. Based on a model intestinal fermentation, this oat beta-glucan was fermentable, producing higher amounts of butyrate than other fibers. Thus, a practical dose of oat beta-glucan can significantly lower serum lipids in a high-risk population and may improve colon health." (Queenan, et al., 2007)
Ballesteros, Martha N. (2001) Dietary Fiber and Lifestyle Influence Serum Lipids in Free Living Adult Men. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Vol. 20, No. 6. 2001. Online available at: http://www.jacn.org/cgi/content/full/20/6/649
Cater, Nilo B. And Garg, Abhimanyu (2007) The effect of dietary intervention on serum lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Current Diabetes Reports. Vol. 2 No. 3 May 2002.
Dietary Fiber Health Claims and Serum Lipids -- Cardiovascular Disease (2002) Nutrition Research Newsletter, June 2002. Online available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_6_21/ai_87852135/
Gangi, Vijay and Kuo, Jennifer (2008) Serum Lipid Responses to Psyllium Fiber: Differences Between Pre and Post-Menopausal, Hypercholesterolemic Women. Nutrition Journal 2008. Vol. 7, Issue 22. 26 Aug 2008.
High Fiber Diet (2009) The Institute for Optimum Nutrition. Online available at: http://www.ion.ac.uk/healthnotes.php?org=ion&ContentID=1291002
Jenkins, David J.A. (2001) Effect of a Very High-Fiber Vegetable, Fruit and Nut Diet on Serum Lipids…