Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from essay:
The A1 northbound at Tritlington in Northumberland was also shut because of water running on to the road.
Among the areas worst hit by flooding were Morpeth, Durham, Rothbury, Chester-le-Street and Stockton-on-Tees. Some 19 elderly residents at a council care home in Gilling West, North Yorkshire, had to be carried to safety by firefighters after it became swamped by 3 feet of water.
Travel disruption was caused in Scotland by heavy rain and winds of up to 70 mph.
Cleveland Police declared a major incident due to weather conditions, with around 29 properties in Stockton evacuated by the emergency services as water levels rose to around 4 feet.
In Morpeth, Northumberland, homes were evacuated and about 40 residents rescued by fire services after the River Wansbeck burst its banks.
Heavy rains sent cars careering down the River Coquet and homes were flooded in Rothbury, Northumberland.
Emergency services evacuated around 30 properties in Hartburn, Stockton, Teesside.
About 50 properties in and around Wearside were evacuated.
Heavy rain and severe winds caused power cuts and travel problems and swept sand-filled foam into parts of Scotland.
Floods in Bristol caused one of the country's biggest blood and plasma banks to close, with thousands of units transferred to other centres by refrigerated lorries.
Train services in northern England were affected by flooding. The East Coast mainline has reopened but with a limited service.
Power was turned off to almost 40 homes in Merseyside as a precaution following flooding.
Roads in north Wales remained closed after flooding and there was flood-related disruption to Arriva Trains Wales services.
Trains between Great Malvern and Hereford remained cancelled after a "very deep hole" was found following heavy rain.
A crew of refuse collectors had to be rescued by firefighters at Eryholme, North Yorkshire, when a river burst its banks and swamped their truck.
A modern block of flats was evacuated in Newburn, Newcastle upon Tyne, after fears its foundations were being washed away.
Schools in some areas were advised to close early, employers were urged to send staff home early and commuters were asked to stagger their journeys to alleviate problems on the struggling transport network (Hundreds of homes flooded, 2012, p. 2).
Analysis. On the one hand, engineers routinely plan for "once-in-ten-year" storms. On the other hand, though, the storm system that caused the flooding in late September 2012 in North East England was unprecedented in the scope of its damage and the disruption and economic loss associated with this disaster were the worst these communities have experienced for at least 30 years. Nevertheless, a consistent theme that emerged from the research was the predictability of the structural damage caused by these flood waters, and based on climate change patterns, it is reasonable to assume that storms of this severity will become increasingly commonplace in the future making the need for preparation today more important than ever, and these issues are discussed further below.
There are some man-made solutions to natural disasters such as the recent storm that hit North East England in late September 2012. Engineers today have a vast array of powerful computer-based modeling tools that can be applied to the circumstances in the regions most heavily hit by the storm's floodwaters, but time is of the essence in preventing future calamities of this magnitude. In this regard, Reaney and Cherry emphasize that:
As the North East recovers from yet another flood event there is much to reflect upon in terms of not only engineering new ways to mitigate flood risk and bringing parts of the A1 and local flood defences up-to-date for example, but also looking at methods of preparing for flood events more effectively that includes everyone involved from councils, volunteers and local communities to national government, NGOs and universities. (2012, p. 4)
Finally, it is clear that residents in communities that were most adversely affected by the floodwaters must take action themselves to coordinate remediation at the local level where residents' interests can be taken into account. As Reaney and Cherry conclude, "Top-down approaches to alleviate flooding, while successful at times in treating the symptoms of the problem, tend not to address the much larger issues of coordination and foresight needed in dealing with large flood hazards that can very easily turn into disaster" (2012, p. 4).
Recommendations for Further Work
Complex problems require complex solutions, and the research showed that this is certainly the case in formulating timely and effective responses to the engineering needs of the communities that were devastated by the storm that hit North East England in last September 2012. Not only will this require a coordinated and multidisciplinary response that actively involves all of the community stakeholders, these responses are going to be expensive. Given the densely populated regions that these floodwaters affected, though, further work towards developing preventive steps today will go a long way towards mitigating the damages of future storms of this magnitude.
Burney, D.M., Simmonds, K. & Queeley, G. (2007, Summer). 'The Relationship between Socio-
Economic Conditions and the Impact of Natural Disasters on Rural and Urbanized
Regions Level of Preparedness and Recovery.' Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table, pp. 37-39.
Carter, H. (2012, September 28). 'Flooding leaves homes facing demolition in north-east
England.' The Guardian. [online] available: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/
Garber, M. & Unger,…[continue]
"Human And Economic Costs Of" (2012, December 24) Retrieved December 6, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/human-and-economic-costs-of-77218
"Human And Economic Costs Of" 24 December 2012. Web.6 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/human-and-economic-costs-of-77218>
"Human And Economic Costs Of", 24 December 2012, Accessed.6 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/human-and-economic-costs-of-77218
Energy Economics Cost and benefit analysis is an analytical process, which is used to measure that whether the benefits or advantages associated with an activity is greater than its costs or not. It is one of the commonly used and formal tools for the assessment of efficiency. Efficiency assessment can be defined as a process in which scarce resources are examined critically so that the ways in which they can be
Health Care Economics In economics, cost-benefit analysis assists in evaluating the costs of an approach in terms of resources spent while cost-effective analysis evaluates the costs as achieving some sort of benefit which is not evaluated in monetary terms. Moreover, cost-benefit study examines several aspects including net-present value, present value of benefit, and present value of costs; in line with this, if a project indicates that the monetary outcome is greater
Economic Impact of Gambling Along with "Wine, Women and Song," gambling was often considered a vice. Indeed, gambling has been a part of human civilization and culture since times immemorial. Gambling has paralleled human evolution. One can easily find instances of gambling in the Bible and other historical references. Gambling can be defined as staking ones material possession for profit. In a broader definition, gambling can also be considered a pact
(Eric 15-16) President Obama & Proposed Tax I think, President Obama should support the sin tax on all alcoholic beverages. The reason is that the youth of United States is getting involved in excessive drinking day by day; thus resulting in societal as well as personal harms. Excessive usage of alcohol is also a major reason for increased obesity in United States which is in turn causing healthcare problem in the
A closer look at a soap bubble basically reveals swirling colors that are usually in motion with the forces that keep these colors swirling being likened to those that create weather. The weather is moved around by very delicate forces which are the variations between cool and warm areas and their slight variations in constituents. Similar to the complexity of these processes, it's difficult to understand the nature of
Benefit Analysis Memorandum Cost-Benefit Analysis Cost-benefit analyses are routinely conducted for federal programs and proposed federal programs. The researchers propose a cost-benefit analysis for homeland security expenditures designed to address conventional threats to national security. An evaluation of catastrophic threats is specifically excluded from this analysis as only 14% of the federal homeland security budget is directed at the prevention of catastrophic threats to national security. The recommendation from the authors
(Ward; Mohapatra; Mitchell, 2008) The Great Lakes also contain large amounts of 'polychlorinated dibenzo-furans - PCDFs' and 'polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins -PCDDs' which are a result of the chlorine bleaching process of paper and pulp mills. In a nation wide study conducted for a period of 4 years on samples of fish and shellfish from various freshwater and marine water bodies in Canada, it was found that the fish from the Great