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For that reason alone, it is imperative that illegal immigrants entering the United States who are apprehended and found to be infectious receive treatment before deportation. However, this question of the health risks posed by illegal immigration has only served to heighten the tensions in the border communities, and cause Americans to be more cognizant of the ethnicity of the illegal immigrants.
So far, in review, the key issues Americans have about immigration are: illegal immigrants vs. legal ones; healthcare, because of the illegal immigrant rate of contagious diseases. This is in support of the thesis of the statement here, but socialism, because Americans believe socialism is the theoretical opposite of capitalism; and religion if the religious group is not willing to conform to the American law and tradition of an all encompassing religious society have not yet been discussed with the supporting peer reviewed expertise that is necessary to support the thesis. Now, we will look at those areas of discussion with peer reviewed expertise in support of those ideas.
Socialism and Capitalism
It is with the tenacity that only those who have known no other way of life but capitalism, or whose own dreams were, or are, to immigrate to the one place in the world where ownership of property and conspicuous consumption are not frowned upon, but celebrated. It has long been with a suspicious eye that Americans have viewed the European immigrant, because of their magnetic draw towards socialism (Tichenor, Daniel, 2002, 71).
"Anxieties about foreign radicalism reawakened anti-Catholic nativism. The missionary Josiah Strong's best-seller, Our Country, warned the nation's Protestant majority of a "Romanist Peril" that would overwhelm American government, schools, and culture. 122 Robust European immigration, he warned, was "mother and nurse" to socialism, labor unrest, "continental ideas" of faith and liquor, party machines, and "rabble-ruled cities (71)."
That sentiment changed in mid twentieth century when America elected its first Catholic, Irish-American president, John F. Kennedy. At that point, and moving forward, Americans no longer stood in fear of socialism, but felt stronger than that force, and embraced immigrants of socialist countries as persons whose lives were restricted economically by socialism as having been persecuted. When refugees began pouring into America from Cuba and South America (which Americans might put into a Spanish speaking category of Hispanic, but recognize as refugees of socialism), they were well received by Americans. They established their selves in a community largely in Florida, within close proximity of whatever connections they could maintain with the island of Cuba. Unlike their Mexican and South American immigrant counterparts, the Cuban American has experienced more success in education.
"Overall, Cuban Americans' average educational attainment levels exceed those of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Central Americans, and Dominicans but are exceeded by those of South Americans and the non-Hispanic population. Second-generation Cubans, however, display a greater tendency to finish high school and continue their education beyond their high school diploma than do their first-generation counterparts. This suggests a marked level of polarization between the two generations (Hill & Moreno, 1996). Economically, Cuban Americans tend to fare better than other Hispanic groups while lagging behind Anglos (Hill & Moreno, 1996) (Adler and Gielen, 79)."
Others, from El Salvador and other South American countries have had difficulty demonstrating for the Immigration service that they were refugees of political persecution, because they were largely of the peasantry class, and stories that they were being sought for their political threat to the ruling junta governments were not plausible when considering the elements of poverty vs. prosperity in the U.S. (Cox, Adam B. And Posner, Erica a, 2007, 809).
That the common lower class citizen in South American countries where there is never ending civil war in a struggle to install socialism cannot find political asylum in America, but Cuban refugees can, suggests that America is selective in its preferences in apply its immigration laws. Asian refugees, like Cubans, are admitted with favor by Americans, who are blind to their ethnicity in large part because they, like the Cubans, are perceived as victims of political persecution. Vietnamese refugees, because of the close relationship their history has with that of Americans, are particularly welcomed as refugees, and as refugees of communism.
"Another stream of post-1965 immigrants that was also new and of significant size was the group of Vietnam War refugees who came to the United States after 1975 from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. These individuals could change their refugee status to that of immigrant a year after being offered asylum. The majority of them were less educated and possessed fewer skills that were transferable to the U.S. workforce. The third Asian stream, since 1990, has consisted of relatives of earlier migrating Asians who have arrived under family reunification permits and who are not as skilled and educated as the early post-1965 immigrants (Segal, Uma a., 2002, 77)."
The same holds true of Chinese immigrants, whose image as a people will forever be linked in the minds of Americans to the broadcast news reels of the Chinese student uprising at Beijing's Tiananmen Square that was quashed by Communist Chinese troops who opened fire on the students killing students and innocent bystanders (Liang, Zhang, Nathan, Andrew, and Link, Perry, 2001, 24). When images or personal associations are made between the American political conscience and the immigrant, the American citizenry become color blind to the immigrant's ethnicity.
Religious Implications for Immigrants
Prior to September 11, 2001, when Islamic fundamentalist terrorists commandeered commercial airliner jets and used them as weapons of mass destruction; then most Americans probably paid little or no attention to the enclaves of Muslims and Muslim Americans who were immigrants from the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. That changed after September 11, 2001, and even though Americans have elected a man of Muslim cultural experience, they remain for the most part wary of people who are Middle Eastern immigrants (Haddad, Yazbeck Yvonne, Smith, Jane, and Moore, Kathleen, 2006). For the most part, Americans have a tendency to think of the Muslim in terms of the Middle East, and, therefore, when immigrants of other Islamic nations are encountered, they probably experience less suspicion than do those immigrants who are distinctly Middle Eastern in appearance and language.
Muslims in America are evolving in a way that their other world area counterparts are not. It is the American system, the framework for the equality of life and pursuit of happiness that prevents the Muslim community from manifesting an Islamic fundamentalist way of life at all levels of society. In America, Muslim women are finding a greater, louder voice in their community, especially in their mosques (Haddad, Smith, and Moore, 61). This distinction sets them apart religiously and politically from their other world area counterparts, and to the extent that they openly demonstrate these distinctions, the less suspicious they would be viewed by Americans in general.
Jewish-Americans, while of an ancestry that arising in the Middle East, are not viewed with any suspicion whatsoever for their religious convictions. Jewish immigrants have assimilated into the American culture and fabric in a seamless way.
Opportunity for Immigrants
Sports have long been a way that male immigrants could essentially be invited to America. The Cuban and other South American country immigrants being highly visible as baseball players and in other sports is becoming a natural occurrence in America (Miller, Patrick, and Wiggins, David K, 2004, 332). Since World War II, when many ethnic groups, especially Japanese immigrants who were prohibited from professional organized sports (Odo, Franklin, 45), today we see Japanese-American baseball players the American sport.
The stereotypical image of the immigrant has evolved over time, and today there is little that is pre-conceived about the immigrant so long as the method of entry into the United States is consistent with those methods that give rise to compassion in the American citizens.
An ethnic group that remains estranged from the American conscience is the Native Americans (Brooks, James F., 2002, 346). The Native American has been consistently stereotyped, and while Americans have moved away from other ethnic stereotypes, the Native American remains a steadfast mascot in baseball, football, and in television and film. There is no guilt carried forward for the plight of the Native American, and even though laws change, even today, with the American Government's exploitation of natural resources and, in contrast, laws to protect endangered species, these actions give rise for the Native American to continually be prepared to fight for that which belongs to them traditionally and legally.
Even though grants that cover education, healthcare, agriculture and other forms of assistance intended to be a band-aid to the American conscience as concerns the Native American, they, as an ethnic group, fail to thrive in the American social setting even though they, like immigrants of their own lands, have assimilated to many of the American traditions like Christianity, music, and even serving in the American armed forces. The continuing demise of…[continue]
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