Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formattingExcerpt from Essay:
inequality"; measured? Do causal relationships "class" "inequality"? Assignment instructions This assignment, covers concepts presented Unit 2, asks prepare essay response (approximately 1600-1700 words, typed/word-processed pages) questions presented .
Throughout the past recent years, the world has evolved at a rapid pace, and this development has been obvious at an economic level, a technological level, but also a social level. Specifically, more and more emphasis is placed on social well-being and the creation of social advantages across nations.
In the direction of social well-being, an increased emphasis is being placed on the elimination of inequality, and the efforts have yet to be fully capitalized upon. In the age of capitalism and globalization, the rich seem to become richer, and the poor become even poorer. While this statement might appear as lyric, it can be backed by several real life examples. One relevant example in this sense is represented by the outsourcing contracts, which allow the economic agents to transcend boundaries and open manufacturing plants in third world regions that provide them with cheap labor force. This in turn creates cost efficiencies and increases the profitability rates for the companies, making their wealthy owners even wealthier. For the employees in the third world countries however, the working conditions are exploiting and the wages paid are insufficient to provide for a decent life. A state of poverty is as such maintained, preventing the local population from enhancing their life styles (Ross, 2004).
Inequality is as such still highly present within the society of the twenty first century, and the efforts to reducing its must start with a better comprehension of the concept. This project then focuses on the description of inequality, its measurement and the existence of a causal relationship between inequality and class.
2. The concept of inequality
At a general level, the concept of inequality refers to a situation in which some groups or individuals have an increased access to specific resources, whereas other groups have a restricted access to the same sources; the living conditions of the two groups with diverse access to the resources are also different and the dissimilar access might not always be entitled or fair.
In a more specific setting, the specialized literature often defines the concept of inequality within a particular context addressed, such as health care inequality. At this level, Wilhelm Kirch (2008) states the following:
"Inequalities in health refer to differences in both health experiences and health status between countries, regions, and socioeconomic groups. Some inequalities are biological (e.g. genetic), others reflect socially determined population differences (environmental factors, behavior)."
Paul Ryscavage (1999) assesses the matter inequality from a financial stand point, in the case of income inequality within the United States. At this level, emphasis is placed on differences among the wages received by the various categories of employees in the country, and the federal efforts to decreasing the income gap and reducing as such inequality. Still, this objective has yet to be reached.
The researchers at the United Nations Development Programme present the concept of inequality through the lenses of genders. At this level, they argue that the representatives of the female gender are often (too often, as they say) discriminated against at levels such as health care, education or the labor market; all these discriminations generate negative impacts upon the freedom and well-being of the girls and women (Website of the United Nations Development Programme).
Finally, the researchers at the European-Anti Poverty Network look at inequality in comparison to poverty. They state that poverty is mostly relevant at the level of specific social classes, whereas inequality is a more important social indicator, since it assesses the state of an economy and a society across all of its social constructions.
"Unlike poverty, which concentrates on the situation of those at the bottom of society, inequality shows how resources are distributed across the whole society. This gives a picture of the difference between average income, and what poor and rich people earn, and highlights how well different Member States redistribute or share the income they produce" (The European-Anti Poverty Network, 2004).
All in all, the concept of inequality refers to differences across various social groups in terms of access to health care, education, jobs and so on. The particularities of the inequality are defined at each individual level, yet the occurrence of inequality is often unjust.
3. Measuring inequality
Inequality is most often perceived as a qualitative element, impacting the quality of life for the individuals. Still, in order to better understand and strive to decrease it, it is also necessary to approach it from a quantitative standpoint, in which it is addressed through numerical and statistical evidence. In this order of ideas, the specialized literature proposes some solutions to measuring inequality, as follows:
The S80/S20 ratio
The decile dispersion ratio
The Gini coefficient
Other statistical ratios.
The S80/S20 ratio is a simplistic measurement tool through which the researchers divide the wages received by the wealthiest 20 per cent of the population by the wages received by the 20 per cent of the poorest of the population; the higher the rate, the higher the inequality (The European-Anti Poverty Network, 2004). The decile dispersion ratio is similar in the meaning that it compares the top richest with the top ten poorer, but it only assesses 10 per cent at each level and the inequality addresses their consumption powers (Haughton and Khandker, 2009).
The Gini coefficient is probably the most popular tool to measuring the inequality within the society and it is different from the S80/S20 ratio since it assesses the income inequality based on the income levels of the entire population, not just the top and the bottom.
"It is a technical formula which identifies the relationship of cumulative shares of the population arranged according to the level of income, to the cumulative share of the total amount received by them. If there were perfect equality (i.e. If each person received the same income), this coefficient would be 0%. If the entire national income were in the hands of only one person then the coefficient would be 100%. The higher the coefficient - the greater the inequality in the distribution of income in a country" (The European-Anti Poverty Network, 2004).
Finally, the inequality within a society can also be assessed with the aid of the Theil, mean log deviation and relative mean deviation statistical formulas. Theil compares the income of a person with the share in the total population, based on relative values of incomes for all individuals. The mean log deviation and the relative mean deviation assess the person's income with the mean values in the society. The mean log deviation reveals the difference between the income of an individual and the average income within the respective society; the relative mean derivation reveals the total income that should be transferred in order to equalize all incomes across the society (Milanovic).
4. Causal relationship between class and inequality
The study of inequality is rather complex and the opinions of the academicians differ on the various topics of inequality. For instance, some researchers believe that inequality is mostly obvious at the level of countries (Kirch, 2008), whereas others believe that it is mostly obvious at the level of social classes.
Jonathan Kelley and Herbert S. Klein (1981) even explained inequality in the context of social classes. They as such argued that inequality represented the difference between the wealth of the elite and that of the peasants and other exploited society groups. The social and economic conditions of these two classes were directly linked and a causal relationship existed between the two. Specifically, the reduction of inequality in the sense of an increase in the social and economic condition of the exploited classes would undoubtedly materialize in a loss for the elite. Subsequently, an additional gain for the elite class would materialize in an additional loss for the peasants, the workers and other exploited social classes.
This relationship is based on the existence of limited social and economic benefits in the world and the fact that when one class losses or gains, no new benefits are created, but the already existent gains are redistributed. In such a setting, the causal relationship sees that the development of one social class leads to the underdevelopment of the other social class.
When the people are exploited, they often rebel against the oppressors and seek to reduce the inequality between the classes. This rebellion can sometimes take the form of a revolution, through which the elite class is overthrown -- when the revolution is successful. Kelley and Klein state that it usually takes an entire generation for the old elite to renounce its inequality demands and perceptions, and for the society to stabilize; and as the society does stabilize eventually, the inequality drops to about one quarter of the inequality before the revolution.
While this outcome would initially be perceived as a positive one decreasing inequality and promoting social equality, an unexpected outcome is that inequality in…[continue]
"Inequality Measured Do Causal Relationships Class Inequality " (2012, August 10) Retrieved October 25, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/inequality-measured-do-causal-relationships-81519
"Inequality Measured Do Causal Relationships Class Inequality " 10 August 2012. Web.25 October. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/inequality-measured-do-causal-relationships-81519>
"Inequality Measured Do Causal Relationships Class Inequality ", 10 August 2012, Accessed.25 October. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/inequality-measured-do-causal-relationships-81519
Physical Activity in Prison The effects that prison incarceration has on the health and well-being of inmates are multi-faceted and complex. The prison environment presents stressors not experienced outside of the prison context that can bring about exacerbated health problems and psychological difficulties. Health care delivery in prisons is an important issue, as primary healthcare initiatives designed to focus on disease prevention are required in order to maintain health in the
Adults With Learning Disabilities It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults. One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National Adult Literacy
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature. Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus) Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy The "Chinese Model" of Investment The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework Operational Views The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus Trading with the Enemy Act Export Control Act. Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act Category B Category C The 1974 Trade Act. The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy The World Views and China (Beijing consensus) Expatriates The Managerial Practices Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus) China and western world: A comparison The China (Beijing
" According to Patton (1998) the overrepresentation of African-American children in special education programs that are intended for students that have serious emotional or behavioral disorders, learning disabilities, and mental disabilities has continued to be a problem even though many researchers have recognized the problems that have occurred as a result of such overrepresentation. In fact there is exhaustive amounts of literature that explains the "causal factors that range from failure
Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior Introduction & Outline of the Research Evaluation Concepts of Social Psychology Attitudes and Persuasion Social Identity Theory Social Influences Cultural and Gender Influences Social Psychology: Examining the Principles of Persuasion Influencing Group Behavior Introduction & Outline of the Essay Social psychology deals with different aspects of social life and social behavior. People not only have feelings and opinions about nearly everything they come into contact with, but the argument has
Lesbian Health Care Lesbian Health Issues in a Heterosexual Society The additional burdens placed on the lives of minorities as a result of social exclusion can lead to health disparities. Social exclusion theory has been used in previous research to investigate the health disparities that exist between socioeconomic classes and individuals of different ethnic backgrounds living in the United States, but it has not yet been applied to another important minority group: