Inflammatory Bowel Disease Immunological Demographical and Genetic essay

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease:

Immunological, Demographical, and Genetic Findings

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects the colon and the small intestine. Though there are many subtypes of IBD, the most common and well-known are Crowns disease and ulcerative colitis (WebMD.com, 2011). Crohn's disease causes symptoms such as abdominal pains, diarrhea, vomit, weight loss, as well as many non-digestive system related pains (WebMD.com, 2011). Ulcerative colitis is quite similar to Crohn's disease due to noticeable symptoms, however, internally the two attack different areas of the body. Ulcerative colitis is experienced in the large intestine or colon, but goes through phases of outbreak and dormancy, while Crohn's disease is specific to the intestine (WebMD.com, 2011).

The estimation of diagnosed Americans with IBD is roughly near 1.4 million, and patients are usually diagnosed in their early teenage years through early adulthood (Tresca, 2006). With such a large amount of people suffering from this disease, scientists have done extensive research in immunological, demographic, and genetics related to IBD in order to find a cure.

It is just as important as scientific findings to have effective nurse practices. Nurses are among the first medical professionals that a patient will see, and proper diagnosis, empathy, and care will assist in quickly identifying this dangerous disease (American Nursing Association, 2011).

2.0 Article One Review: Probiotics & IBD: The Immunological & Environmental Factors

Probiotics have become a popular remedy for bowel issues, starting near 2007 when the industry experienced a profit growth of roughly twenty four percent (Deardorff, 2009). Despite its growing popularity, the probiotic industry and its assistance towards those with irritable bowel disease, must be further researched in order to be determined effective.

Probiotics cause health benefits for its users. The bacteria can be found in certain products, including yogurt, kefin, and miso. In order to provide beneficial digestive support as promised, the probiotic must balance the body's intestinal system. When providing such balance, the probiotic can help manage disease, as well as produce certain antibodies to aid against viruses, infection, and prevent harmful bacteria from staying within the system (Deardorff, 2009). When a person has IBD, the immune cells located within the lining of the intestine are triggered through diet or environment to activate the immune system. Unlike a person without IBD, the IBD sufferer is unable to turn off the immune system's attack on the intestinal cells. The patient is able to control their diet and environment to avoid painful outbreaks of IBD attacks on their intestinal walls. A person who smokes is more likely to develop Crohn's disease than non-smokers, however, a smoker is less likely to develop ulcerative colitis than a non-smoker. While the scientific facts have not been verified, scientists believe that the cigarette smoke's effect on the intestinal tract is the leading cause of these results (Achkar, 2011).

For those with IBD or other severe bowel issues, the raise in popularity with probiotics may cause more harm than good. With the popularity, manufacturers are purposely or accidentally misinterpreting its definition to the public. Consumers are becoming blissfully unaware of the fact that manufactured products do not necessarily have active, live probiotics or useful, beneficial strains to the digestive system. Fortunately, probiotics are natural and safe, and IBD sufferers are able to test the products to see if they are able to assist in easing their symptoms (Deardorff, 2009).

This article appears to be based on factual information, as it references spokespeople and scientists as its resources to the information. Though it presents both sides, it is clear that the article is taking note of the lack of responsibility probiotic producers are displaying to the public, making it slightly objective. As the article is from a well-known, respected newspaper and has displayed corrections post-publishing date, it appears to be a valid, trustable article.

3.0 Article Two Review: Rifaximin Relieves IBD Symptoms for 10 Days Post-Medication

Scientists have found that the antibiotic Rifaximin may benefit IBD patients. The product works differently than most antibiotics because it absorbs into the body at a much slower rate than regular antibiotics, while stopping the growth of diarrhea causing bacteria (PubMedHealth, 2011). When the product is absorbed, it passes from the stomach and into the patient's intestine. Unlike most antibiotics, it is not absorbed into the bloodstream; rather, it is excreted through stool, which allows for temporary relief. Rifaximin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, and has been proven as beneficial for as many as ten weeks after discontinuation of its use (Goodwin, 2011).

IBD can prevent a person from working, having a social life, or traveling. While other common treatments on the market focus on only diarrhea or constipation, Rifaximin was able to help relieve patients of these symptoms as well as bloating and other IBD symptoms. When tested, 41% of subjects found that Rifaximin provided adequate relief, as opposed to the 32% that were taking a placebo. For bloating, 40% of Rifaximin test subjects found relief from the problem, as opposed to 30% from placebo test subjects (Goodwin, 2011).

Rifaximin is a unique product and the first of its kind. It is the first product to try to find relief for IBD sufferers in areas other than constipation or diarrhea. Because the product is an antibiotic, researchers believe that intestinal microbiota may play a role in IBD. Researchers believe that IBD may be caused by an imbalance in gut flora, which is why the antibiotic may be able to assist in easing the patient's overall symptoms (Goodwin, 2011).

Though based on secondary information, the article appears to be based on valid, factual information. The article uses the New England Journal of Medicine as its resource, and could have used at least one more resource to create validity to their findings. The article appeared to be well researched, as it answered all common questions about the disease, outside research, and placebo results.

4.0 Article Three Review: IBD Sub-types and the Epidemiology of IBD Sufferers

IBD has been considered a sub-type of diarrhea-predominant, constipation-predominant, or alternating bowel habits. This can range from three bowel movements per day to one per three days. (Andrews, et al., 2005). When measuring the impact that IBD has on a patient's quality of life, reports show the impact has been severely negative. Among the greatest of problems, sufferers reported medical costs, decreased work productivity, and absenteeism, which lead to financial strain. The poll also revealed that the most likely demographics for IBD were women, unmarried people, and unemployed people. This is not to say that unmarried and unemployed people have a higher risk of IBD, but rather, that IBD has affected its victims enough to keep them from social or work lives (Andrews, et al., 2005).

The first gene to be positively linked to Crohn's disease, Nod2, was discovered in 2002. Researchers found that if a person had this gene, they were very likely to have Crohn's disease. If a person had a relative with Nod2, the relative is ten times as likely to possess Crohn's disease. The ratio is even greater if the diagnosed relative is a sibling, where the risk is as much as thirty times as likely (CCFA, 2009). While genetics is unable to be changed, a person is able to lower their risk of diagnosis by altering their environment and diet. Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are more common in urban areas than rural areas, northern vs. southern climates, and developed countries vs. underdeveloped countries. Maintaining a healthy diet can also avoid flare-ups, despite the link between certain foods and IBD. Specific dietary modifications allow a person to reduce their IBD symptoms while replacing any necessary nutrients that have been lost (CCFA, 2009).

This article was more of an opinion based article. Besides the background introduction, which was provided by professionals in the area of gastrointestinal disorders and diseases, the information was strictly based off of a poll completed by IBD patients. The poll results addressed the negative of having IBD without presenting optimistic information, such as if or how people may lead normal lives. The article was clearly bias, however, very factual.

5.0 Implications of Nursing Practices

Nurses are among the first and the last medical professionals a patient will see, and it is important for nurses to have a standard for their practice. An unprofessional, disrespectful environment may lead to damage in the areas of health, finance, law, and business. Therefore, nurses should set for themselves and their peers the highest expectations possible for their client safety. When the nursing profession provides for itself a set of standards, it will maintain the quality of their practice. Medical care is unlike any other industry, except that it is still a business. As with any other business, medical professionals must receive trust from their patients in order to receive continual visits.

Though different medical facilities have different standards, some standards must be accepted across the entire industry. Providing patients with licensed and trained staff will ensure that the nursing staff understands proper procedures and will execute patient safety. Allowing a…[continue]

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