Julius Caesar and His Rise Term Paper

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After Cato saw that his forces were defeated by Caesar, in traditional Roman fashion, he fell on his sword and committed suicide.

Despite this great loss for the Senatorial faction, Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius and Sextus Pompeius, together with Titus Labienus, Caesar's former propraetorian legate (legatus propraetore) and second in command in the Gallic War, escaped to Spain, where they continued to resist Caesar's dominance of the Roman world. Caesar arrived in Spain in late November or early December of 46 BC, with 8 legions and 8,000 cavalry of his own. Caesar's arrival was completely unexpected by the enemy, and the surprise gave him an early advantage.

In March of 45 BC, the two armies faced off in the battle of Munda with Pompey holding the high ground. Caesar was forced to march uphill against the strong enemy position, but he was never one to shirk from a chance at open battle. Caesar's army overwhelmed the retreating enemy and was merciless in its zeal to end the war. It would turn out to be the final major battle and victory of Caesar's career, and one that effectively ended land-based resistance.

Caesar returned to Italy in September, 45 BC, and among his first tasks was to file his will, naming Octavian as his solo heir. While away, the Senate had already begun bestowing honors on Caesar. Even though Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoned nearly every one of them, there seemed to be little open resistance to Caesar, at least publicly.

Great games and celebrations were to be held on April 21to honor Caesar's great victory. Along with the games, Caesar was honored with the right to wear triumphal clothing, including a purple robe (reminiscent of the kings of Rome) and laurel crown, on all public occasions. A large estate was being built at Rome's expense, and on state property, for Caesar's exclusive use. The title of Imperator also became a legal title that he could use in his name for the rest of his life.

A statue of Caesar was placed in the temple of Quirinus with the inscription To the Invincible God. Since Quirinus was the deified likeness of the city and its founder and first King, Romulus, this act identified Caesar not only on equal terms with the gods, but with the ancient kings as well. In yet more scandalous behavior, Caesar had coins minted bearing his likeness. This was the first time in Roman history that a living Roman was featured on a coin, clearly placing him above the Roman state, and tradition.

When Caesar actually returned to Rome in October of 45 BC, he gave up his fourth Consulship (which he had held without colleague) and placed Quintus Fabius Maximus and Gaius Trebonius as suffect consuls in his stead. He celebrated a fifth triumph, this time to honor his victory in Spain. The Senate continued to encourage more honors. A temple to Libertas was to be built in his honor, and he was granted the title Liberator. They elected him Consul for life, and allowed to hold any office he wanted, including those generally reserved for Plebeians, like the Tribune. He also was given the power to appointed magistrates to all provincial duties, a process previously done by draw of lots or through the approval of the Senate. The month of his birth, Quintilis, was renamed July (Latin Julius) in his honor and his birthday, July 13, was recognized as a national holiday. Even a tribe of the people's assembly was to be named for him. A temple and priesthood, the Flamen maior, was established and dedicated in honor of his family.

Plutarch records that at one point, Caesar informed the Senate that he felt his honours were more in need of reduction than augmentation, but withdrew this position so as not to appear ungrateful. He was given the title Pater Patriae ("Father of the Fatherland"). He was appointed dictator a third time, and then nominated for nine consecutive one-year terms as dictator, effectually making him dictator for ten years. He was also given censorial authority as prefect of morals (praefectus morum) for three years.

At the onset of 44 BC, the honors given upon Caesar continued and the subsequent rift between him and the aristocrats deepened. He had been named Dictator Perpetuus, making him dictator for the remainder of his life. This title even began to show up on coinage bearing Caesar's likeness, placing him above all others in Rome. Some among the population even began to refer to him as 'Rex' (Latin king), but Caesar refused to accept the title.

Works Cited

Bonta, Steve. "The Rise of Caesarism: The Weakened Roman Republic Was Crushed by Julius Caesar, a Charismatic Military Leader Who Exploited His Popularity with a Roman People Who Desired Security above All Else." The New American, 10 January 2005, 34+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008399947.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Caesar, Julius." In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagass, Paul. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101235077.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Dodge, Theodore Ayrault. Caesar, a History of the Art of War among the Romans down to the End of the Roman Empire, with a Detailed Account of the Campaigns of Caius Julius Caesar. Vol. 1. New York: Biblio and Tannen Publishers, 1963. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=4282042.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Holmes, T. Rice. Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar. Oxford: Clarendon

Press, 1907. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=56381763.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Jimenez, Ramon L. Caesar against Rome: The Great Roman Civil War. Westport, CT:

Praeger Publishers, 2000. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15452236.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Meier, Christian. Caesar. Translated by Mclintock, David. New York: Harper Collins, 995. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99871291.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Sihler, E.G. Annals of Caesar: A Critical Biography with a Survey of the Sources. New York G.E. Stechert, 1911. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9400972.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Walter, Gerard. Caesar A Biography. Translated by Craufurd, Emma. Edited by Therese

Pol. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1952. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5958262.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Warner, Rex George. Imperial Caesar. London: Collins, 1960. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59219195.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Bibliographical Information

Bonta, Steve. 2005. The Rise of Caesarism: The Weakened Roman Republic Was Crushed by Julius Caesar, a Charismatic Military Leader Who Exploited His Popularity with a Roman People Who Desired Security above All Else. The New American, 10 January, 34+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008399947.Internet.

Caesar, Julius. 2004. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagass, Paul. New York: Columbia University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=1012350774

Dodge, Theodore Ayrault. 1963. Caesar, a History of the Art of War among the Romans down to the End of the Roman Empire, with a Detailed Account of the Campaigns of Caius Julius Caesar. New York: Biblio and Tannen Publishers. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=4282042.

Holmes, T. Rice. 1907. Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Caesar. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=56381763

Jimenez, Ramon L. 2000. Caesar against Rome: The Great Roman Civil War. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15452236

Meier, Christian. 1995. Caesar. Translated by Mclintock, David. New York: Harper Collins. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99871291

Sihler, E.G. 1911. Annals of Caesar: A Critical Biography with a Survey of the Sources. New York G.E. Stechert

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9400972

Walter, Gerard. 1952. Caesar A Biography. Translated by Craufurd, Emma. Edited by Therese Pol. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5958262

Warner, Rex George. 1960. Imperial Caesar. London: Collins. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59219195

Sihler, E.G. 1911. Annals of Caesar: A Critical Biography with a Survey of the Sources. New York G.E. Stechert. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9400972.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Walter, Gerard. 1952. Caesar A Biography. Translated by Craufurd, Emma. Edited by Therese Pol. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5958262.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Meier, Christian. 1995. Caesar. Translated by Mclintock, David. New York: Harper Collins. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99871291.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Bonta, Steve. 2005. The Rise of Caesarism: The Weakened Roman Republic Was Crushed by Julius Caesar, a Charismatic Military Leader Who Exploited His Popularity with a Roman People Who Desired Security above All Else. The New American, 10 January, 34+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008399947.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Caesar, Julius. 2004. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagass, Paul. New York: Columbia University Press. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101235077.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Warner, Rex George. 1960. Imperial Caesar. London: Collins. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=59219195.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Dodge, Theodore Ayrault. 1963. Caesar, a History of the Art of War among the Romans down to the End of the Roman Empire, with a Detailed Account of the Campaigns of Caius Julius Caesar. New York: Biblio and Tannen Publishers. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=4282042.Internet. Accessed 11 July 2006.

Walter, Gerard. 1952. Caesar A Biography. Translated by Craufurd, Emma. Edited by Therese Pol. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.…[continue]

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