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Our senses during the conscious are rarely honed, but our subconscious states, from millenia of evolutionary change, are able to detect subtleties that have freed up our conscious minds for more analytical growth. Many people view this as subtrefuge -- our subconscious secrets living in a world that lacks expression. Instead, Jung believes that all things may be viewed as paired opposites (yin and yang). So love/hate, good/evil, male/female, etc. results in an ego system in which there is a counterego, or the shadow of oneself. This shadow reprents the parts of ourself that, for whatever reason, we tend to ignore. There are numerous reasons for this; it may be cultural, it may be practical, or we may not even realize we are ignoring a portion of ourselves. But for the self-actualized human, though, dreams are the guide for the waking self to meet with the subconscious to offer solutions that may not be apparent during our conscious state of mind (Jung, Memories, Dreams and Reflections, 1989, 11-44, 76-89).
Because dreams are a way of intercommunication with the unconscious, Jung thought that what we dream likely reveals something about us and our interactions with others during the conscious life. Whether we actively remember about what we dreamt is of no matterl instead they guide our own personal growth, ability to solve problems within our lives, and the gear up for out full potential. To do this, though, sometimes we must be forced to actively critique and attempt to interpret our dreams, whether through the self or with the assistance of a trained pyschotherapist. Jung emphasized, though, that there is no one way to correctly interpret a dream -- instead, see them as reflections and representations of what might be happening in your life, for that is far more significant that allowing others, who have no real knowlddge of some of the private parts of our psyche, to tell us what our own symbols mean (Jung, Memories, Dreams and Reflections, 1989).
Archetypes of the Mind - In his study of dreaming, Jung found that there are certain commonalities, archetypes, that exist within every culture on the subject of dreams. Except for familiarity with certain technological improvements, the basic sets of dream categories are uniquely human. For Jung, dreams may be personal and are representative of our personal experiences, but the ujniversal themes and symbols are part of our collective consciouness, or something we share with every human being prior and ahead of us (Jung, Man and His Symbols, 1968). Jung defind seven symbols during his professional career. It is through an honest interpretation of these thems that Jung believes we can not only characterize humans, but find plausible solutions to many of the day-to-day issues that are also common to all humans, regardless of culture. These archetypal dreams (mythic) occur more during significant changes within our lives, causing Jung to believe that the psyche was searching for species-level memories to draw upon for adaptation and survival. These dreams may be our most vivid, and impossible to adequately explain (e.g. The pink, reptillian bat who arrives just as we are cutting out coupons or perusing the New York Tuimes sports section while ice skating in the tropics.)
The Persona -- This is our mask, our public face or image that we see ourselves in waking life. It is our Self, but may or may not embody our actual personality traits. However, regardless of the actor (General, Mountain Climber, Dolphin) we instinctively know this character is representing ourself.
The Shadow -- Like a shadow, never fully formed and able to disintegrate regularly, this is the rejected or repressed aspects of our lives. Usually this symbolizes weakness, dear, or anger. Jung believed that many psychological problems could be mitigated once we accepted this part of ourselves.
The Anima -- If we think of ourselves as having both masculine and feminine traits, the anima is a conglomeration of both. In our dreams it may be split into two exaggerated selves (hyper masculine or extremely feminine), or may be androgynous. Jung believed that the purpose of the Anima was to condition ourselves to express both sides of our personality in order to remain "complete."
The Divine Child -- The Divine Child is our pure self; helpless, insecure and innocent. This part of our dream structure is open to all things, but wants nothing more than to be cherished and nurtured.
The Wise One -- The Wise One takes on many forms; spirit guide, teacher, sage, parent, etc. -- the most healthy individuals are able to use this to guide ourselves through a difficult experience.
The Great Mother -- In essence, this is the Gaia concept of the Earth as Mothe nature, the nurturer -- disguised as our own caregiver or other nurturing person in our life. Jung believed this symbol remained with us so that as we progressed through problems, we would have a grounding or basis in someone who has helped us.
The Trickster -- The Trickester is often Satan, but more in the mythic sense. Our inability to make mistakes, laught at ourselves, or wrestle with a complex problem. Instead, the Trickster helps us by showing our own negative involvement (Jung, Man and His Symbols, 1968; Haule, 2010).
Thus, for Jung, evolution allowed our mind's to become ever so complex. The price for this, though is dreaming, but in dreams we can realize our true nature. As Jung himself noted, "It is only possible to live the fullest life when we are in harmony with these symbols; wisdom is but a return to them."
Jung and Treatment Options- When using Jungian models in therapy, one can approach the theory based on archetypes, dream interpretation (various means), or ways of looking at individual personality characteristics and the interaction of those characteristics within a structured environment. Treatment methodologies differ in this type of model, but most therapists tend to emphasize the importance of insight and interpretation within a frame of reference -- what are the boundaries of the situation, what inner workings of the mind establish patterns of behavior, and why so certain traits of others, and oneself, begin to cause additional behaviors?
1) For the psychodynamic paradigm, the structure of the personalities in question deal with motivation and ability to understand what the primary motivations are for particular sets of behaviors and actions:
CM #1 -- Low self-esteem and uncomfortable making decisions. Wary of supervision, introverted, and conflict avoiding. While loyal and faithful to authority, lacks the will to innovate and manage situations, much less other individuals.
CM#2 -- Outgoing, egocentric, people skills make up for lack of knowledge. Boisterous without being overbearing, charismatic and constantly hoping the world "is a stage," on which she "is the star."
CM#3 -- Experienced and intellectual mature, but with issues of independence and insecurity that often manifest in lapses of patience, extreme outspoken or opinionated outbursts, and while a caregiver in many situations, rather judgmental and controlling of others.
SYCC -- Chronologically mature, but intellectually immature. Lacks verbal skills and organization of mental processes. Delegates more than leads even though has the experience to manage. Possible insecurities and internal dynamic issues (Lozano 1997).
2) A Jungian approach to Freud's views of human nature (Frey-Robin 2001):
Basic Drives and Immediate pleasure; self-gratification, but unconscious behavior.
Reality principle; long-term benefits; cognitive, how to mediate id, and find defense mechanisms to cope.
Organized part of the personality; and takes ego's drives and expands upon them. Wants to act socially appropriate, tries for acceptance.
Introverted, open minded, but lacks the will to lead and manage.
Prefers to attain goals by allowing others to make decisions and succeed.
Boisterous, outgoing, very self-assured.
Covers lack of knowledge with "star" behavior; true showmanship, must be center of event, "staring" role.
Humorous, but outspoken. Knowledgeable and intellectual.
Works hard, understands fast, and expects the same of others; good at reading people's needs, and acting upon them.
Stays in background to avoid conflict
Uses shyness as a cover for being shy and introverted; non-linear thinking, and inability to verbally organize.
3) Interpersonal relations associated with Jungian approaches to psychodynamics (Samuels 1990):
Jung's Influences -- Besides psychology and education, Jung had a tremendous impact on the 20th century. In literature, his ideas influenced Hermann Hesse, James Joyce, and an entire generation of authors who deal with archetypes and layering of thought. He has influence in academic works focusing on mythos, anthropology, sociology; and even in the abstraction of 20th century art. Numerous films have taken on a different type of existentialist thought based on Jung's views, and even such popular artists as Sting, Peter Gabriel, and even the Beatles were influenced by his ideas. In actuality, it is not exaggeration to say that his views and writings have had some of the strongest influences on…[continue]
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