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Ego psychology is rooted in Sigmunds Freud's breakthrough concepts of his time relating to the id, ego, and superego. Ego psychology has evolved since his time and relies heavily on psychoanalysis. Freud originally conceptualized three regions of the mind. The id, which represents what is completely unconscious to us and serves as a pleasure center that seeks immediate gratification. The ego, which is a secondary process, that tries to reconcile the demands of other parts of the mind with the natural world and the social constructs in which it operates. Finally, the superego has an idealistic nature that most people consider someone's "conscience." These forces of the mind, among others such as instincts, help describe the dynamics of personality that can motivate people to perform certain behaviors.
1-What is the role the therapeutic relationship plays in terms of therapy outcomes?
The therapeutic relationship plays a vital role in terms of…
Theorists of Ego Psychology:
Ego psychology comes under the neo-analytic theory. Neo-analytic theory recasts and broadens psychoanalytic theory by underplaying sexuality, and by underplaying the significance of the unconscious. Instead it highlights the role of the ego. There are some neo-analytic theorists who concentrate on the process of the ego, while some concentrate on how the ego relates with and is influenced by other individuals or society or culture. Freud thought that the main job of ego was to intervene among the id, superego and external realism. Ego psychologists vary from Freud by stating that: The ego is concerned in adjustment, i.e. that the aim of behavior is adjustment to the surroundings and that the ego is powerfully concerned; and that the ego prevails from birth. Based on Freud's early works, a number of famous ego psychologists have done their works, but with a better and diverse prominence…
"Ego, Superego and Id" retrieved from http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/E/Eg/Ego,_Superego_and_Id.htm Accessed on 25 February 2005
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"Freud's Structural and Topographical Models of Personality" (March 21, 2004)
Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/psychology101/ego.html Accessed on 25 February 2005
The ego does not have any concept of right or wrong but it understands that an action is good when it achieves the desired end of satisfying the need without harming the id or itself.
The superego is the last component of personality to develop in a person. Sigmund Freud argues that the superego begins to appear in a person at the age of five years during the phallic stage of psychosocial development. It is the personality aspect that holds all of the internalized moral ideals and standards that a person acquires from both their parents and the society. It provides the person with the sense of right and wrong and provides guidelines upon which a person can make judgment. He argues that the superego has two parts. The first is the ego ideal which includes the standards and rules for good behavior. The ideal is the picture…
Bowman, K.M. (1928). Review: The Ego and the Id by Sigmund Freud; Joan Riviere. The American Journal of Psychology, 40(4), 644-645. doi: 10.2307/1414355
Duhamel, D. (1999). Id. Prairie Schooner, 73(4), 70-74. doi: 10.2307/40635307
Fromm, E. (1976). Altered States of Consciousness and Ego Psychology. Social Service Review, 50(4), 557-569. doi: 10.2307/30015411
Smith, M. (1963). Ego Support for the Child Patient. The American Journal of Nursing, 63(10), 90-95. doi: 10.2307/3452890
he ego also understands that submitting to the id can lead to self-destructive behavior. he ego is also subject to "defense mechanisms" that will help it mediate between the id and the super-ego. One defense mechanism present in Bundy's behavior is displacement. Displacement occurs when one directs threatening impulses on a less threatening target. Reports indicate that Bundy directed his attacks on middle-class, white females, between the ages of 15 and 25, many of who were college students. His victims are speculated to have resembled his first girlfriend, "Stephanie Brooks." After his relationship with "Brooks" ended in 1968, Bundy became depressed, dropped out of school, and began traveling east. Bundy had confessed that his first attempted kidnapping occurred in 1969, an indication that the termination of his relationship with "Brooks" may have been the trigger on his serial killing spree.
he super-ego is closely associated with the individual's conscience and…
The ego is formed through the interaction and socialization with others. The ego is based on the reality principle and recognizes that other people have needs that also need to be fulfilled. The ego also understands that submitting to the id can lead to self-destructive behavior. The ego is also subject to "defense mechanisms" that will help it mediate between the id and the super-ego. One defense mechanism present in Bundy's behavior is displacement. Displacement occurs when one directs threatening impulses on a less threatening target. Reports indicate that Bundy directed his attacks on middle-class, white females, between the ages of 15 and 25, many of who were college students. His victims are speculated to have resembled his first girlfriend, "Stephanie Brooks." After his relationship with "Brooks" ended in 1968, Bundy became depressed, dropped out of school, and began traveling east. Bundy had confessed that his first attempted kidnapping occurred in 1969, an indication that the termination of his relationship with "Brooks" may have been the trigger on his serial killing spree.
The super-ego is closely associated with the individual's conscience and the ability to distinguish between right and wrong. In Bundy, his sense of right and wrong was corrupted at a young age as his parentage was initially hidden from him by his "parents," who were in fact, his grandparents, and his "sister," who was, in fact, his mother. Bundy made an attempt at appearing normal to society, participating in politics, attending and completing college, and by maintaining a seemingly normal relationship with Elizabeth Kloepfer. But Bundy could not maintain this facade and eventually quit politics, school, and his relationship ended when he went to prison in 1976 for kidnapping. Further deterioration of his super-ego led to his murderous rampages and to the disintegration of his super-ego. It is speculated that serial killers lack the capacity to feel guilt, and therefore are devoid of super-egos.
Bundy was executed on January 24, 1989. He never made a full confession to his crimes, though he confessed to having committed more than 30 crimes, of which only 20 were verified.
Then I realized that I have done the same thing to other people, and I just project my faults onto them. I used to strongly dislike one kid in class because he was really shy and never spoke up, even though he was smart. I used to get frustrated with him and wanted to tell him to be more assertive. Then when I reflected on this kid one day, I realized that when I was in elementary school I was also shy. I still have the tendency to be shy but have worked on it, so projection is a defense mechanism. My projecting my shyness onto other people, I pretend that my own insecurities no longer exist. Now that I have become more self-confident, I end up projecting those same insecurities onto other people.
My ego also uses projection as a defense mechanism in more general ways. For instance when…
Loevinger's Stages Of Ego Development
Jane Loevinger's Stages of Ego Development
Jane Loevinger's theory about the stages of ego development builds upon Harry Stack Sullivan's earlier theory of ego development stages such as Impulsive, Conformist, Conscientious, and Autonomous. Loevinger's theory is a more complex one, describing how ego organizes and directs the activities of the person as subject. Each development stage, in Loevinger's theory, is characterized by a psychic structure that defines the form in which one's self and others are experienced. In Loevinger's conception, each stage may be classified as preconformist (characterized by needs and immediate gratification), conformist (the stages of acceptance of others), and postconformist (the stages where one is aware of complex individual differences and separateness). The earlier stages characterize children and the latter characterize adults, though adults may express the stages of early development as well (Kirshner, 1988).
Loevinger describes the first stage of ego development…
Kirshner, L.A. (1988) Implications of Loevinger's Theory of Ego Development for Time-limited Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 25(2): 220-226.
Loevinger, J. (1976) Ego Development: Conceptions & Theories. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Negotiation stands out as an integral component of my day-to-day social interactions. In most cases, I find myself at the center of controversy or in a difficult situation where negotiation is the only option out of it. Nonetheless, my experience has rarely been awesome on a table of discourse that arouses emotions. There are those moments when in the middle of a conversation I simply marched away as I could not put up with the 'crap' from the other party. In addition, despite my strong opposition to the other person's point-of-view, I chose to hang on a little longer and entertain their thought patterns in some cases (Gelfand, & Brett, 2004). Lastly, there are instances, though very few, where I decided to engage the conflicting pattern with the utmost sobriety until we arrive at an amicable solution. All these responses show how I have acted disorderly when confronted with situations…
Doeden, M. (2012). Conflict resolution smarts: How to communicate, negotiate, compromise, and more. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books.
Gelfand, M.J. & Brett, J.M. Eds. (2004). The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture. Stanford Hendon, D.W., Hendon, R.A. & Herbig, P.A. (2007). Cross-cultural Business Negotiations.
Greenwood Publishing Group
Lum, G. (2011). The negotiation fieldbook: Simple strategies to help you negotiate everything. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
LaFond Padykula, N. And Conklin, P. (2010). The self-regulation model of attachment trauma and addiction. Clinical Social Work, 38(4), 351-360.
LaFond Padykula theorized the self-regulation model (SRM) as a means of informing the practice of assessing and treating addiction and attachment trauma. dialectical philosophy John Bowlby[footnoteRef:1] (1988) developed the theory of attachment through his seminal work observing the distress of infants and young children who had been separated from their mothers. Bowlby asserted that attachment was not consciously controlled but was instead hard-wired in humans and many other animals. [1: Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York, NY: Basic Books.]
The theory builds on and integrates the attachment behavior research by Bowlby, positing addiction as the efforts of an individual to regulate their own attachment in the direction of more normal adaptive behavior. The theoretical foundation for the self-regulation…
Erickson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and Society. New York, NY: Norton.
Erickson contributed to the development of ego psychology beyond the framework that Freud presented in that Erickson attributed the formation of personality to culture and society in addition to sexuality. Erickson's theories consider the ego to be the most important aspect of personality as it can function independently from the id and the superego. Because the ego is an influential and powerful aspect of the personality, it adapts to the presenting situations to promote mental health and appropriate social adaptation. Erickson studied individuals exhibiting normal personality in addition to people who were considered to be neurotic. In this way, Erickson contributed to theory in the fields of normal psychology as well as abnormal psychology.
It is also referred to as luminal stimulus or limen. However the irritability of the population in our case is different, they will react to the slightest provocation of their egos. The isolation formats them to such a sensitive being that they react with very minimum provocation.
Effectiveness of management of excessive stimulus input- the population in study more often will not know the difference between the general pathogenic influences and the and adverse trauma, they may end up treating the two in similar manner since they are not in a position to manage or put under effective control the stimulus they react to nor the stimuli they send out. This is due to isolation which makes then non-interactive for a long time hence cannot use exposure to others to learn the trick.
Generally isolation due to disruption of the cultural system imposed on a population by poverty can…
Bruce et.al, (2000). Neighborhood Poverty and the Social Isolation of Inner-City African
American Families. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-66274514.html
Encyclopedia.com (2005). Ego Functions. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3435300417.html
Henderson David, (2010). Hispanic Poverty and Social Isolation Effects on Low-Income People.
, 2007) Finally, "projective identification involves projecting an affect, impulse, or thought onto someone else as if it were really that other person who originated the affect or impulse" (Drapeau et al., 2007).
Looking at the different defenses used by pedophiles, when compared to those used by the control group, it is easy to see how those defenses would be characterized as immature. The id, the ego, and the superego are considered the three levels of development for the individual psyche. The id is considered the most basic level of the psyche. It is where the libido resides, and it encompasses both constructive and destructive impulses. The ego is often cast as the mediator between the id and reality. It is an organized personality structure, and the ego is where many defense mechanisms are thought to reside. The ego is the id, as modified with direct contact with the outer…
Drapeau, M., Beretta, V., de Roten, Y., Koerner, A., & Despland, J. (2007). Defense styles of pedophilic offenders. Int J. Offender Ther Comp Criminol 51: 185-195.
In attempting to become unaware of these attachments is where the "transformation of consciousness" Tolle references begins.
Tolle notes that this attachment goes as far as our own bodies, and in order to find our true selves, we must assert that we are more than our bodies. He notes, "no matter what your body's appearance is on the outer level, beyond the outer form is an intensely alive energy field" (Tolle 35). The realization of this is immeasurably difficult for individuals to wrap their heads around, which leads to the aligning of oneself with the concept of ego and individuality that so many people recognize as their true existence.
Tolle ends the chapter in a manner that is used to describe the means in which some people come to terms with the true existence he speaks of, free of attachment to objects and our false selves. He does this in…
Tolle, Eckhart. A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose. London: First Plume
Printing, 2005. Print.
" Emecheta uses metaphors, similes and allusions with appropriate timing and tone in this book, and the image of a puppet certainly brings to mind a person being controlled, manipulated, made to comply instantly with any movement of the controlling hand. In this case Ego seems at the end of her rope -- the puppet has fallen nearly to the floor and is dangling helplessly.
The Emecheta images and metaphors are sometimes obvious, as this one is, but always effective. The reader is clearly aware of Ego's initial identity, and Ego's swift feet of lightness and intensity running in the misty darkness, presents a fluid sensation -- a hoped for escape. She is running towards a new identity and when she hits the gravel road the color is of blood and water and she runs like this will be her duty forever, like someone is following her. The image of…
Derrickson, Teresa. "Class, Culture, and the Colonial Context: the Status of Women in Buchi Emecheta's The Joys of Motherhood. International Fiction Review 29.12 (2002):
Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1994.
Fishburn, Katherine. Reading Buchi Emecheta: Cross-Cultural Conversations. Santa Barbara,
This mythical structure has a long history in terms of mythical and visionary experience in all cultures of the world. One could also refer to the earliest Shamanic forms of religion and the myth of the dismembered Shaman who is also the transformed healer of others. In these myths the journey to the underworld, and the process of the destruction of the old self or ego does not result in final death but in transformation and greater insight into reality.
Therefore, taking the above brief sketch of the significance of this mythical structure into account we can apply it to a Jungian analysis of the ego.
When Inanna descends to the Underworld she divests herself of her previous life and this is symbolized by the way that she throws off the accouterments and symbols of her previous existence. When she enters the realm of the dead she can only do…
Ewen Robert B. ( 1998) An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Henderson, J.L., & Oakes, M. (1963). The Wisdom of the Serpent: The Myths of Death, Rebirth and Resurrection. New York: George Braziller. Retrieved April 5, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24109155
Inanna. Retrieved from http://www.linsdomain.com/gods&goddesses/inanna.htm
Furthermore, that voice in the back of one's head is the true self, and it is critical for each individual to understand that voice and listen to that voice.
So much of chapter three focuses on the negative impact of the ego on humanity that it can be very difficult to focus on any of the positive aspects of the human condition. However, Tolle eventually stresses the importance of moving beyond ego. He describes ego as being very limiting, so that, with the ego one is reduced to less than the total of a person. The "I," rather than being a descriptor of a whole human being, allows someone to reduce their identification to a set of statuses: gender, possessions, jobs, social roles, and other similar statuses that needlessly limit a person. He considers this type of ego-linked focus as way of preventing people from being able to accept the…
Gilbert, Jack. "A Brief for the Defense." The Poetry Center at Smith College. N.p. 2005. Web.
9 Oct. 2011.
Tolle, Eckart. "The Core of Ego." A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose. New York: Penguin Group, 2005. 59-84. Print.
This leads one to believe that they are not very well off financially and the mother has not real education in order to obtain employment since she is currently attaining administrative assistant training. Antonio also has issues with controlling his behavior when in the daycare environment, as he frequently has violent outbursts and crying spells.
If one were to assess Antonio from an Eco-Feminist perspective one would be better able to understand Antonio and his present behavior. Ecofeminism is the social movement that regards the domination of women and nature as unified. It is one of the few movements and analyses that in fact connect the two movements. Lately, ecofeminist theorists have extended their analyses to reflect on the interconnections flanked by sexism, the domination of nature, and also racism and social dissimilarities (What is Ecofeminism, n.d.). Daniel spent a lot of time suppressing Hilda in his behavior that he…
"Neil Adger on Social Resilience." (2010). Retrieved December 2, 2010, from Ecological
Sociology Web site: http://ecologicalsociology.blogspot.com/2010/05/neil-adger-on-social-resilience.html
Kendall, Diana. (2008). Sociology in our Times. Belmont: Thompson Wadsworth.
Mannelli, Sandra. (n.d.). What Are Defense Mechanisms Anyway? Retrieved December 3, 2010,
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…
Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.
Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258
Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
Sigmund Freud enumerates that the human psyche consists of the unconscious id, the ego (which is partly conscious and partly unconscious), and the superego (also partly conscious and partly unconscious). At first, a newborn has only an id, which consists of blind drives that seek satisfaction. In a few months, the ego is developed when the newborn experiences resistance and frustration of its drives by the outside world: it realizes that it is separate from that external world and develops a sense of self. The superego will develop later, when it has internalized the rules, prohibitions and ideals of its parents. In the meantime, the ego is the infant's structure that relates with the outside world on the basis of the reality principle, whereby the developing child learns to weigh its choices according to the consequences. This it does while pursuing or fulfilling the innate pleasure principle, whereby it…
Lavine, Thelma Z. From Socrates to Sartre: the Philosophic Quest. reissue edition. Bantam Books, 1985
Stevenson, Leslie. SevenTheories of Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press, second edition, 1987
Of course, the last thing on Hamlet's mind would be marriage since he is wrestling with the tragedy of his father's death and his mother's betrayal. In light of all of these facts it is very unlikely that Polonius would be wrong, and it seems that his observations and expectations of his daughter are quite astute.
On the opposite end of Ophelia's situation is Hamlet, who is very much the Id. Hamlet himself is extremely emotional and impulsive, allowing his Id to overcome him in many situations. He wrestles with his own conscious, and as a character, he is truly one of the most fully developed, showing evidence of the inner conflict that Freud set out to illustrate with his components of personality. However, when it comes to his relationship with Ophelia, he is very much her Id. Though she has convinced herself that Hamlet loved her, he himself states…
It is through Shelley's doubling between Frankenstein and the Monster, and herself and Frankenstein and the Monster, that Freud's uncanny and psychological concepts of the id, ego, and superego can be analyzed. Shelley demonstrates how an individual's outward appearance is not necessarily representative of their character and at the same time is able to come to terms with the psychological traumas that plagued her -- from losing her own mother at childbirth to losing her own children shortly thereafter. Furthermore, Shelley is able to demonstrate how an imbalance between an individual's id, ego, and superego can influence behavior and is also able to demonstrate how each of these is formed, either through instinctual behaviors, observations, and education. Ultimately, Shelley's understanding of the uncanny, and psychological constructs, paved the way for psychologists like Freud to investigate the constructs of fear and unease.
Freud, Sigmund. The Ego and the Id.…
Freud, Sigmund. The Ego and the Id. 1923. Web. 2 May 2013.
-. "The Uncanny." 1919. Web. 2 May 2013.
Johnson, Barbara. "My Monster/My Self." Diacritics. Vol. 12. The Johns Hopkins University
Press, 1982, pp. 2-10. JSTOR. 2 May 2013.
Landon Carter's Character through
Erik Erikson's stages of development
Erik Erikson was an American developmental psychologist who was born in Germany and went to postulate eight stages of psychological development. He developed a model that talked about the eight stages every human passes through as he grows. These stages depict and analyze a person's life from when they are baby till they die. It mentions how in every stage a person is presented with problems and challenges. Every stage depicts a crisis which has to be resolved or else it will create problems in the next stage. Thus, for a person to attain a positive personality they need to attain positive goals of that stage and progress smoothly to the next one. (osenthal, Gurney, & Moore 2)
A Walk to emember is a popular romantic drama movie released in 2002. With the setting in North Carolina, the movie revolves around…
A Walk to Remember. Dir. Adam Shankman. Perf. Mandy Moore, Shane West, Peter Coyote. Warner Bros. Pictures, 2002. DVD.
Beaumont, Sherry L., & Zukanovic, Ray. "Identity Development in Men and Its Relation to Psychosocial Distress and Self-Worth." Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. January (2005) Web.
Elkind, D. "Erik Erikson's Eight Ages of Man." New York Times. New York Times, 5 April 1970. Web. 15 November 2012.
Gross, Francis L. Introducing Erik Erikson: An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. 1987.Print
Transactional Analysis in Education
Educational Transactional Analysis is the area for this case study example where the client is a school that is experiencing a rise in unruly delinquent behaviors. The purpose of the case study is to assist the school with finding ways to deal with the students that is conducive to changing their behaviors creating a learning environment. The study will also show how an TA in education can benefit educators in a teaching and learning setting . There are a number of reference books that show that this theory is beneficial to educators. For example Improve Behavior and aising Self-Esteem was one text that brought out advantages of TA in the classroom (Barrow, Newton, and Bradshaw, 2001). The experience will allow students and teachers to experience improved communication by providing tools and resources to bridge gaps (Barrow, Newton, and Bradshaw, 2001, 5). This is accomplished by using…
Berne, E. (1964). Games People Play. Grove Press.
Barrow, G., Bradshaw, E., Newton, T., (2001). Improve Behavior and Raising
Self-Esteem in the Classroom: London, Fulton.
Harding, A. (2004) 'Have I Got the Right hat On? Using TA to Deliver High
Tracy is a thirteen-year-old, Caucasian female, who is being raised by her mother, Melanie in Los Angeles. Also living in the home is Tracy's older brother Mason, who is fifteen. Tracy's parents are divorced, with Melanie as custodial parent. Tracy is in regular contact by telephone with her father, Travis, who is now remarried with a new baby. Travis is employed with a decent salary but has suffered periods of unemployment in the past; Melanie is a high-school dropout who receives child support but otherwise makes a basic subsistence income as a hairdresser for children and women, operating out of her own home. She is a recovering alcoholic who attends weekly A.A. meetings, but most of her social circle is from the recovery movement. For example, Melanie's boyfriend Brady, who is about ten years younger than Melanie but still substantially older than the children, also regularly stays at…
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press.
Freud, S. (1963). The unconscious. Standard edition Vol. 14. London: Hogarth Press.
Gardner, S. (1991). The unconscious. In Neu, J. (Ed.) The Cambridge companion to Freud. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Greene, R. (2008). General systems theory. In Greene, R. (Ed.) Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. 165-193.
Anna Freud: Psychoanalyst and Pioneer
Anna Freud is considered a pioneer in the development of child psychoanalysis. Her work focused on how the ego functions in averting anxiety and painful ideas, impulses and feelings. Many credit her as being one of the primary ego psychoanalysts that stepped 'outside of the block' and delivered a fresh and new perspective on the psychology of personality.
Among her more memorable works included" The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence" which challenges traditional psychoanalytic thought. Her contributions are primarily in the realm of child therapy. Anna Freud is credited with developing a theory that helps explain among other things, communication patterns and personality/behavioral development in children.
An Austrian-British psychoanalyst, Anna Freud was the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha (Wesley, 1992). She is most well-known for her work with children. Born in Vienna in 1895, Freud first worked as…
Freud Museum. (2004). "Life and Work of Anna Freud." Retrieved: 25, November,
2004, from: http://www.freud.org/uk/fmanna.htm
Boeree, C.G. (1998). "Anna Freud." Retrieved: November 22, 2004, from:
Freud Concepts of Instincts, Drives
Desires, instincts, and drives are central to Freud's psychoanalytical theory. Although Sigmund Freud altered his theories throughout the course of his career, the core concepts of instincts and drives remain relatively constant. Freud first expressed the basic human instincts as being hunger and sex. Later, his theories matured, and Freud deeply analyzed the nature of human sexual drives. In his writings, Freud focused much on the conflicts that generally arise between the individual's innate instincts and the rules and mores of the society. All human beings continually struggle through various stages of their psycho-social development to restrain and express their desires, drives, and instincts. Freud framed these conflicts between desire and civilization into two major groupings: the conflict between sexual drives and civilization; and the conflict between self-serving happiness and civilization.
Freud's views on human sexuality are notorious and controversial. His Oedipus complex and other…
Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Eros." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/eros.htm>.
Stier, Marc. "Civilization/Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happiness.htm>.
Stier, Marc. "Instincts/Drives." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/drive.htm>.
Stier, Marc. "Nature of Happiness." Online at < http://www.stier.net/teaching/ih52/notes/freud/happy.htm>.
However, the author explains that the true danger in role playing is the fact that it actually prevents people from developing an entire, well-rounded identity on their own. Instead, they merely lock themselves into a role which, when it happens to end either through circumstance or through will, people are unable to detach themselves from that role. Consequently, they no longer have a true appreciation for or even knowledge of themselves, and have a difficult time existing outside of the role itself. A common example of this phenomenon occurs with parents in their process of parenting. People can become so good at being "mommy" or "daddy" that after there is no longer a need for a day-to-day mother or father, they do not fully know who they are or how to live life outside of those comfortable roles.
Another primary focus of the fourth chapter of A New Earth is…
Buddhism is one of the world's major religions -- yet many dispute whether it should be called a religion at all. Buddhism has been called a 'philosophy' as much as a faith, because of its non-theocratic nature. Although the Buddha is revered as a historical figure, and many Buddhist traditions invest his persona with a kind of miraculous power, it is not necessary to believe in a god or gods to be a Buddhist. Buddhism could be defined as a way of coping with some of the perplexing problems that all religions grapple with to some degree: injustice and suffering. In contrast to the caste system of India, which stressed how karma could determine the cycle of one's birth or rebirth, Buddhism stressed the adherent's need to escape from the endless karmic cycle and to find a sense of peace and detachment called Nirvana.
The first noble truth of Buddhism…
Sumedho, Ajahn. (2012). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved:
Through this, the owner of Ford Motors Corporation was able to increase production levels and to reduce costs. "Even then when the lean manufacturing concept was years away, Ford had a focus on reducing time and material waste, increasing quality, and lowering cycle times, in order to achieve a lower cost vehicle which was reflected in the price reduction of the model T. year on year. This focus allowed him to reduce costs, even though he payed his workers well, and provide a great value product to the customer" (Lean Manufacture Website, 2009).
The editors at the Lean Manufacturing Guide online implement an approach similar to the editors at the Lean Manufacture Website. From their standpoint, lean manufacturing is an organizational effort by which waste is being reduced with the purpose of creating more value to the final product. In their own words, lean manufacturing is a "systematic approach to…
Blacharski, D., 2010, What is lean manufacturing, Wise Geek, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-lean-manufacturing.htm last accessed on September 29, 2010
Deming, W.E., 2000, Out of the crisis, MIT Press, ISBN 0262541157
Hoobs, D.P., 2004, Lean manufacturing implementation: a complete execution manual for any size manufacturer, J. Ross Publishing, ISBN 1932159142
Nilson, K., 2010, Lean manufacturing: adapting as important as adopting, Six Sigma, http://www.isixsigma.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=241:lean-manufacturing-adapting-as-important-as-adopting&Itemid=156 last accessed on September 29, 2010
McGregor makes a similar point where individual ego needs are concerned. Quite certainly, all personnel like to know that their work, efforts and particular skills are being appreciated. McGregor points out that this dimension represents a great priority to man subsequent to having achieved his survival needs and attended to his social requirements. hen these basic imperatives have been satisfied, McGregor makes the point that all individuals will attempt some greater level of personal validation. This, he reports, is to be formed on a combination of personal self-esteem and the validation given thereto by others.
McGregor goes on to argue that especially for those working in the lower tiers of the industrial-organizational hierarchy, positive ego-orientation can be nearly impossible to achieve. He makes the argument -- notably connected to the practices of his era -- that commonly applied methods of production strategy make no acknowledgement of the connection…
McGregor, D.M. (1957) The Human Side of Enterprise. Management Review.
Adolescents may experience a crisis regarding their sexuality and sexual attractiveness, feel inferior or different when compared to other teens, or find themselves engage in role-related conflicts with peers and other adults.
1c. Aspects of privilege and lack of privilege that intersected with and/or created challenges to and opportunities for strong ego development.
In the development of the ego, the valuation of certain characteristics within society as 'superior' can reinforce an individual's positive self-perception. Class status, including wealth, can give individuals a strong sense of ego, as can intelligence, beauty, and other valued talents and skills. The social acceptance of peers can also create a sense of 'privilege.' Individuals who are socially awkward and experience rejection are less likely to develop strong egos than people whom are embraced by their peer group. However, others who feel highly competent at a skill (such as music or math) or have been given…
A change of leadership and divisive social forces might pressure such hatreds into re-erupting, but these hatreds are still historical 'products.'
A balance between history and psychology is needed to fully understand why mass political atrocities occur. A diffusion of responsibility during the action such as a war or a collective lynching can be a facilitating factor, but the social and historical context must be acknowledged. An authority that validates the atrocity, as in the case of Hitler or Milosevic can legitimize terror, but the people's responsiveness to that figure has its roots in culture and collective psychology. Furthermore, distance from authority can also create a sense of validation -- although lynching was never part of the official justice system of the South, it was obvious that the authorities were willing to ignore lynchings, provided they was done under the cover of night. The repercussions for protecting African-Americans and treating…
His overactive super-ego demands rigid acceptance of social conformity, including a set of standards that are applicable to him being a role model to others. He might ask himself the question, " that if he, as a conservative role model, cannot control his physical urges what then would a less "public" and conservative individual do if he or she were exposed to such materials? His response with regard to reaction formation might tell him that despite ample scientific evidence that arousal from erotic imagery is normal and even healthy and that the majority of people who view such material still remain within the confines of acceptable adult morality, that the average lesser individual might react to erotic material by committing adultery, raping or acting sexually aggressive toward someone, turn deviant (i.e. gay), or the worst case scenario inappropriately touch a child. All of these fears are aspects of reaction formation,…
Jerry's "unfailing impulse of contrition -- a sort of chivalry" struggles against the boy's impulse to be accepted and viewed as a man (3). The lack of father figure in the story underscores Jerry's preoccupation with the group of boys.
The symbolism in "Through the Tunnel" offers a perfect opportunity to explore Freudian theory. In fact, the symbolism emerges like it would in dreams. The titular tunnel is the central image, being an overt representation of the vaginal canal. Moreover, Jerry contemplates the opening of the canal, its vulva, for a long time before entering it. References to the "promontory" of the beach, "strokes," and finally an "explosion" offer phallic imagery too. Jerry is driven to explore the tunnel by a group of boys that he longed for with "a craving that filled his whole body," (5). The longing also suggests homosexuality, which is tempered soon by Jerry's deeper desire…
Jean Piaget's theory of child development dates back to the 1920s, although he became more prominent in the 1950s. Like the Freudians, he posited that children underwent certain stages of moral and cognitive development, although these were not so heavily based on sexuality and gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id. ather he maintained the infants and small children passed through a stage of gaining basic control over sensorimotor and bodily functions, eventually developing concrete and finally abstract thought by the end of adolescence. He also recognized that cognitive development and morality were closely related, as did Erik Erikson and the other ego psychologists. Piaget claimed that children should develop ethics of reciprocity and cooperation by the age of ten or eleven, at the same time they became aware of abstract and scientific thought. Erikson in particular deemphasized the early Freudian concern with oral, anal, phallic…
DeRobertis, E.M. (2008). Humanizing Child Development Theory: A Holistic Approach. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Sigelman, C.K. And E.A. Reder (2012). Life-span Human Development. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Freud, Jung and tar Wars
The tar Wars movies, especially the first three, are clearly a type of myth written to demonstrate archetypal personalities. The characters are driven by their behavior, so what they do and why they take the actions they take can be used to analyze their characters in terms of Jungian and Freudian theories.
In the Empire trikes Back, many of the characters are acting out of great personal need or personal striving, and many of them fit fairly well into Jung's theory or archetype personalities.
The "elf" is the highest form a personality can take, well integrated and centered. To become a self-actualized elf is Luke kywalker's goal and the final achievement of his mentor, Obi-Wan Kenobe. In an interesting twist, Darth Vader also sees himself that way. He believes self-actualization can be either good or evil, and finds evil more powerful and rewarding.
Boeree, C. George. " Carl Jung." BioWeb. Accessed via the Internet November 3, 2002. http://www.studiocleo.com/librarie/jung/boeree1main.html
British Psychological Society (BPS).
2001. "Freudian Therapy." Freud: the Id, Ego, and Superego. Published on the Internet by PsycheNet-UK. Accessed via the Internet November 3, 2002. http://www.psychnet-uk.com/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_freudian.htm.
Lukas, George. The Empire Strikes Back. Produced by LucasFilm. ISBN 0-7939-6098-3
They establish identities or are confused about what roles to play. Additionally, Cherry (2011) states that child must have a conscious sense of self that is developed through social interaction. A child's ego identity is constantly evolving as he or she acquires new experiences and information. Processing these new experiences and information embodies and shapes one's sense of self.
According to Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development (Berger, 2010), thoughts and expectations profoundly affect attitudes, beliefs, values, assumptions, and actions. In turn, these factors have a direct correlation to the sense of self that motivates competence, positive behaviors, and actions. If a void occurs in developing a sense of self relative to others, he or she will have psychological barriers that are translated into a defense mechanism to conceal one's lack of motivation, fear of failure, and social dysfunction (Berger, 2010). Lowering the affective filters are critical to foster social development…
Berger, S. (2010). The developing person: Through childhood and adolescence. New York: Worth Publishers
Cherry, K. (2011). Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm
Many fellow psychoanalysts, mostly men who were several years her senior, courted her, the most notable of whom was Ernest Jones, the British analyst who is best remembered for being Sigmund Freud's biographer. The budding romance between the nineteen-year-old Anna and Jones was, however, nipped in the bud by Freud's suspicions and hostility toward Jones' interest in his daughter. (Gardner and Stevens, 1992)
Her Major Contribution
Anna Freud's contribution in the fields of 20th century psychiatry and psychoanalysis is second, perhaps, only to that of her father. Her genial nature apart from the quality of her work made her popular among her colleagues despite her professional differences with psychoanalysts such as Melanie Klein. (Fine 1992)
Anna Freud started her writings by translating her father's works into English and helped him to articulate his current works. She, however, had too much intellect to remain under her illustrious father's shadow all her…
"Anna Freud." (n.d.) Women's Intellectual Contributions to the Study of Mind and Society. . Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/annafreud.html
Boeree, Dr. C.G. (1998). "Anna Freud." Personality Theories. Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/annafreud.html
Gardner, S. & Stevens, G. (1992). Red Vienna and the Golden Age of Psychology, 1918-1938. New York: Paraeger Publishers.
"Life and Work of Anna Freud." (2005). Freud Museum. . Retrieved on May 6, 2005 from http://www.freud.org.uk/fmanna.htm
Freud & Foucault: Comparing Two Theories of Human Behavior
Psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), and linguistic anthropologist Michel Foucault (1926-1984), came from two different European cities (Freud from Vienna; Foucault from Paris) lived at different times, and developed entirely different theories of human behavior. Freud believed human drives and impulses originate from the unconscious; and external social repression of unconscious impulses (early messages about "right" and "wrong" from parents, teachers, other authority figures, and from society) give way to internal formation of the id (unconscious desire); the ego (a person's sense of who he or she is); and the superego (an internalized parent constantly reminding the individual, based on early socialization, of what is the "right" thing to do, instead of the "wrong" thing, in terms of society's expectations of the individual). It is in fact the id/ego/superego theory for which Freud is best known.
Freud also believed, in…
The autho of this esponse has been asked to descibe a taget agency within which the autho will wok and how pecisely that wok will commence and be executed. Included in that summay will be what the autho of this epot bings to the theapeutic encounte, the oveall helping/theapeutic encounte and the initial fomulations that will be employed in used. Befoe that, the autho will descibe the agency that will be woked at and what they do. While some may focus deision and disdain on the mentally ill and ambivalent, any peson that wants to become o estoe themselves as an active membe of society should be given the tools and esouces to do so.
The agency that will be in question within this epot is known as the Cente fo Uban and Community Sevices, o CUCS fo shot. CUCS is a non-pofit goup that sevices the poo, the…
references and experience is lacking or flat-out wrong. However, it is important to note that research shows that needs/supplies fit and demands/abilities fit are not the same thing and should be measured and assessed differently (Hardin & Donaldson, 2014).
Regarding the initial formulations, there are going to be some patterns and usual outcomes that will become obvious. First, the client will need to have their expectations managed and assessed so that they align with reality and common practice. The key is to get the patient riled up and proactive while at the same time not setting up their hopes to be tackled. The client should not have difficulty working with the author of this response but the author of this response has a duty to be honest and open about the process and the challenges that will be faced. The message should be positive but it should be based on prior results and the facts as they exist. So long as the client is on board with being honest and proactive about the process, then there should be no discord or disagreement between the two. However, if the client is down in the dumps and very pessimistic about the outcome, then there might be some challenges. However, the fact that they came forward to use the services of CUCS proves that they are at least willing to try and that should be seized on and taken advantage of.
The potential or even like difficulty in getting the client engaged and keeping them involved stems from prior patterns of desperation, negative outcomes and the general perception that all of the above will likely persist as there is little to no reason to expect otherwise based on what is observed and experienced. This is not dissimilar to what can happen with social work professionals who end up experiencing "compassion fatigue" (Bride, Radey & Figley, 2007). That being said, there are some societal or cultural constructs and trends that can influence the path the therapies do or do not take. Examples of this would include race or the patient/client having a partner that is abusive or is himself/herself being abused (Addison,1977; Aymer, 2008; Mattei, 1999; Salvendy, 1999). Any sort of inflated (or deflated) ego or any artificial influence that is not based on reality and/or is coming from an external source can heavily sway the patient's mindset and, by extension, the results of the therapy (Gitterman & Germain, 2008; Goldstein, 1995) However, all it takes to change that pattern is a change in tactics and attitude as people can overcome a negative pattern of outcomes and expectations through actions and behaviors that are proactive, positive and moving consistently in the right direction rather than being uneven or negative in terms of the overall approach.
To maintain and strengthen the treatment relationship, the author of this report will empathize with the prior challenges and struggles but the author will also make it clear that these challenges will eventually
Snow hite has a low sense of self-efficacy. She dreams of a prince making her life better, not of making her life better through her own initiative She does not leave her cruel stepmother's home, rather she waits until she is literally forced out in a life or death situation, even though she was being abused and used as a scullery maid. This behavior may also tie into her strong superego as a character -- she does not openly disobey her stepmother, ever, and works hard to earn her keep for the dwarves. However, her superego's strength is inconsistent -- she breaks into a home rather than takes refuge somewhere else, and allows herself to eat an apple from a stranger.
Snow hite is the subject of her stepmother's projections -- all of the woman's fears about aging and her loss of beauty are projected onto the girl, and the…
Wagner, Kendra Van. (2009). Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. About.com
Retrieved June 7, 2009 at http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/psychosocial.htm
Miami was where it all happened. I dated then. I guess you could say I had a life. Back then, if I were to be living under any rock, it had to be a very beautiful one, such as limestone, the kind of limestone that grew in small crevices on the road leading up to my grandfather's home on the island. I felt then that Prince Charming would come, eventually and when he did he wasn't going anywhere. After all, I am amazing; he must just not have received the memo quite yet. All of this was in the past and the time was now. I had been through enough doubt and feeling that I was some creature living under a rock. I was going to meet him and this situation would be resolved. Tonight was my coming out from under the rock.
Lucas. His name is Lucas Walker. We…
Ernest Shackleton: Epic Voyage of Endurance
Ernest Shackleton was an Antarctic explorer at the end of the period of mass exploration that occurred at the conclusion of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. He was considered a restless man, which was evidenced by the fact that he left school early in order to go to sea as an apprentice on a sailing vessel, an option that his family, which was middle-class, could afford. He achieved the status of Master Mariner in the Merchant Navy. Shackleton's middle-class background was an important part of his life; unlike many explorers of his time, Shackleton was not independently wealthy, and he spent much of the time that he was not exploring trying to create the wealth that exploring required. However, he was not a successful businessman, and never achieved the wealth he sought. Shackleton's personality may have contributed to his lack of…
It is clear that Shackleton's ego helped contribute to the problems that the crew experienced. Prior to leaving South Georgia Island, whalers warned Shackleton of the problems with ice and suggested that he stall his expedition, but he left for the South Pole anyway. Many people have suggested that, had he not done so, they would not have encountered the problem with the pack ice. However, that position ignores the inherently dangerous conditions surrounding travel in the Antarctic. Ice floes are difficult to detect, so there is no reasons to suspect that Shackleton intentionally risked encountering pack ice, but, instead the theoretical danger of some type of disaster, which already pervaded the entire mission.
Moreover, while Shackelton was known to seek the glory and recognition that exploration brought to him, he was not foolishly attached to that design. It is worth noting that he did not try to get his crew to reach Antarctica with the life boats, but instead had them head toward Elephant Island. He could have foolishly tried to get them to continue on their original mission, which would have ensured their deaths, but he did not.
Therefore, in many ways it can be said that Shackleton's ego saved the men. When the boat became stuck in the pack ice, it appears that Shackleton's goal for the mission immediately transitioned to survival for his crew. When the boat began sinking, he ordered the crew to abandon ship and they were able to use lifeboats to get to Elephant Island in April 1916. From there, Shackleton left the island and went to South Georgia Island in pursuit of a ship to rescue the abandoned men. It took months for him to attain financing for another ship to retrieve the men, but he refused to abandon that mission.
Integrated Counseling Orientation
Key Concepts of the Integrated Approach
My theoretical orientation as a counselor will be based on an integration between the psychoanalytical approach, the cognitive-behavior therapy approach and the reality therapy approach. These approaches complement one another and serve to address issues of concern in a multicultural society. The key concepts in the psychoanalytical approach are the conflict between the id, ego and superego. This conflict is created as an individual tries to balance needs with social norms and expectations, pleasure and reality. These conflicts are generally present in the unconscious but psychoanalysis helps to bring these issues into the conscious of the client so that their ego strength is increased and they can take better control of their behavior.
In cognitive-behavior therapy, the key concepts are learning and skill acquisition. A number of interventions are formulated, administered and evaluated to enable the client to acquire…
Corey, G. (2012). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (9th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning
Hofmann, S.G. (2012). An introduction to modern CBT: Psychological solutions to mental health problems. John Wiley & Sons
Wubbolding, R.E. (2010). Reality therapy. American Psychological Association
new product requires several marketing considerations. There are many negative factors to product development that must be dealt with. There are also several factors that promote successful product development. Finally, product positioning and pricing are two important considerations.
One of the negative factors is uncertainty. This is especially true if the product is not only a new product for the organization but also a new product for the industry. One example that shows this is the computer software industry. The uncertainty is present because of its nature as a new and pioneering industry. The industry is rapidly changing and companies in the industry must be continually innovative and make decisions based on limited information. There is no certainty in this industry that a successful company will remain successful. To give an example, we can consider Apple-Macintosh. Apple-Macintosh had first-mover advantages as the first to develop a graphical user…
Ball, D.A., McCulloch, W.H., International Business: The Challenge of Global Competition. Boston: McGraw Hill, 1999.
Bradmore, D., Joy, S., & Kimberley, C. Marketing Visions. New York: Prentice Hall, 1989.
Burke, R., Condron, I., Conroy, G., Knol, W., & Nolan, P., Strategy in emerging industries: Microsoft Corporation. http://www.bess.tcd.ie/foresight
Daft, R.L. Management. Fort Worth: The Dryden Press, 1998.
In the prologue to Jung's (1965) book, Memories, dreams, reflections, he states that life, to him, is like a plant that lives on its rhizome. The real life of the plant is not seen but hidden, rather, in the rhizome.
The part that appears above ground lasts only a single summer. Then it withers away -- an ephemeral apparition. When we think of the unending growth and decay of life and civilizations, we cannot escape the impression of absolute nullity. Yet I have never lost a sense of something that lives and endures underneath the eternal flux. What we see is the blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains.
Jung (1965) goes on to explain that his book about his life has been based on the rhizome of his life -- the interior happenings as opposed to the exciting events of his life -- like traveling -- because it is the…
Casement, Ann. (1998). Post-Jungian today: key papers in contemporary analytical psychology. Routledge.
Dunne, Claire. (2002). Carl Jung: wounded healer of the soul. Continuum International Publishing Group.
Edinger, Edward. (1992). Ego and archetype. Shambhala.
Jung, Carl. (1965). Memories, dreams, reflections. Vintage Book Edition.
This is again an illustration of how awareness of types and subtypes can prove useful.
Steady types are introverts who seek stability and show intense organizational loyalty. They are the backbone of many work teams and workplaces, enforcing rules and mutual respect through a good personal example. However, this can put them at odds with the more daring dominant types, although steady types like to follow a leader. Some steady subtypes, like 'the relater' are more driven to seek personal stability, which can cause them to ignore an organization's need for change along with steady 'harmonizer types' who also seek to minimize conflict. Having too many relators and harmonizers on a team that needs to foster change and overcome change resistance may be problematic. However, other steady type subtypes like 'the specialist' who seeks to know more about his or her organizational role and 'the go-getter' who seeks "a steady…
Chapman, Bruce. (2010). Personality styles. Business Balls. Retrieved August 11, 2010 at http://www.businessballs.com/personalitystylesmodels.htm
McCloud, Megan. (2010). The real you according to the platinum rule. Suite 101. Retrieved
August 11, 2010 at http://self-awareness.suite101.com/article.cfm/the-real-you-according-to-the-platinum-rule
Smith, M.K. (2005) Bruce W. Tuckman - forming, storming, norming and performing in groups. The encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved August 11, 2010 at www.infed.org/thinkers/tuckman.htm.
Likewise, it seems that the patient may also have sublimated repressed his anger at and maybe a perpetual rivalry with at his father by dedicating his entire life to achieving the one accomplishment that his neither his father nor any of his siblings ever achieved: catching a road runner.
Furthermore, it would seem that the patient is mainly driven by ego-based issues; specifically, he has devoted his life to fulfilling the definitions established by his father and family of origin of personal worth. Consequently, he has over-valued the goal of catching the road runner far beyond its actual worth as a meal. The fact that much of the ridicule to which he was exposed during his psychosocial developmental stages occurred during the anal phase is consistent with his rigid focus and his obsession with perfection in the form of the achievement of a hunting goal.
The patient has also apparently…
Bannister readily acknowledges that the creative group noticed that some children did not respond to the therapy in a way that showed it was a productive approach for those particular kids. The team's initial response was to reassess how they were interacting with those particular children. The final assessment the team made was that they, as an outside source, could not provide the complete or total stimuli for the children to react in the way that would help the team to identity the therapeutic direction for those particular kids, and that it required the participation of family members to do that.
It is interesting to note, too, that even with psychodrama, the therapists recognized it as a tool, one of many in the repertoire of psychoanalysis and psychotherapies. Their work with children was challenging, and there was really no quick fix to the problems the children they were working with…
Bannister, Anne. Creative Therapies with Traumatized Children. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2003. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113765322.Internet . Accessed 10 September 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018907330
Beaulieu, Danie. "Impact Techniques: Applying Our Knowledge of Human Memory Systems to Psychotherapy." Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association 9, no. 4 (2006): 23+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018907330.Internet . Accessed 10 September 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=55202785
Farmer, Chris. Psychodrama and Systemic Therapy. London: Karnac Books, 1995. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=55202785.Internet . Accessed 10 September 2008. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108811895
Such relationships in childhood begin with the parents, and for Asher, these early relationships are also significant later, as might be expected.
However, as Potok shows in this novel, for someone like Asher, the importance of childhood bonds and of later intimate bonds are themselves stressed by cultural conflicts between the Hasidic community in its isolation and the larger American society surrounding it. For Asher, the conflict is between the more controlled religious environment of the community and the more liberal environment of the art world he joins. What Potok shows about this particular conflict might seem very different from what others experience, others who are not part of such a strict religious background and who are not artists. However, children always find a conflict between the circumscribed world of their immediate family and the world they join as they strike out on their own. This conflict is often portrayed…
Belkin, L. (2004). The Lessons of Classroom 506. New York Times Magazine, 40-53.
Bowlby, J. (1988). Developmental psychiatry comes of age. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 1-10.
Erikson, E.H. (1963) Childhood and Society. New York: Free Press.
Kim, W.J., Kim, L. & Rue, D.S. (1997). Korean-American Children. In G. Johnson-Powell & J. Yamamoto (Ed.) Transcultural Child Development: Psychological Assessment and Treatment (pp. 183-207). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
"The work of civilization has become increasingly the business of men, it confronts them with ever more difficult tasks and compels them to carry out instinctual sublimations of which women are little capable" (Rosenfels 21).
When considering leaders and their followers, Freud believed that some people were meant to be controlled as a result of their laziness and of their instinctual abandonment. These individuals influence each-other in adopting an indifferent attitude with regard to their own fate. They are saved by people who are capable to set an example through their strength of will and who take on managerial positions in order to control the masses (Rosenfels 21).
One of the reasons for which Freud expressed dissatisfaction with his experience in the U.S. was the fact that he did not appreciate the attitude that American husbands had in regard to their wives. He believed that one had to control his…
Rosenfels, P. (1980). Freud and the scientific method. Ninth Street Center.
Paul Rosenfels discuses Freud's determination to consider that inequality governed the human society. In addition to expressing his opinion regarding the "men are superior to women" concept that was common at the time, he also related to a series of other relationships that he considered imbalanced. Freud practically considered that there was no relationship that did not involve an inequality rapport, as he typically focused on people's problems and tried to emphasize them in order for individuals to understand the reason for their inferiority while in a relationship. Rosenfels also speaks about how Freud used personal experience in producing theories regarding social inequalities.
Boeree, George. "Sigmund Freud." Retrieved October 16, 2011, from the Shippensburg University Website: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html
Boeree describes some of the basic characteristics of Freud's personality theory and focuses on the importance of the unconscious in comparison to the conscious and the preconscious. The doctor also relates to how Freud came to consider that human behavior is determined by factors that are not immediately accessible. Boeree also relates to each trait of the personality theory in particular and explains the way that it functions in regard to people's activities. This source recounts Freud's determination to discuss a subject that people living contemporary to him generally considered to be unimportant, especially given that most individuals were inclined to favor easy explanations when trying to come up with a solution for some mental illnesses.
Grey with a way to accommodate the needs of their Ids and their Superegos. Their Superegos imposed the societal constraints on sexual relationships, which would drive both Lee and Mr. Grey to enter into monogamous sexual relationships. Their Ids drove Lee and Mr. Grey to seek immediate gratification of their aggressive urges through sexual behavior. By entering into a relationship with each other that allows them to fulfill both needs, Lee and Mr. Grey allow their Egos to reconcile the needs of their Ids and Superegos.
Furthermore, the Secretary addresses the issue of sexuality, and highlights the intimate relationship between sexuality and aggression. The unusual thing about the Secretary is that it demonstrates that a relationship that might be viewed as deviant was actually helpful to both members of the relationship. Prior to becoming involved with one another, Lee and Mr. Grey are both in pretty bad shape. Lee was…
This meant that men held positions of power and authority in all the public spheres including economics/business, politics/the law, and the bearing of arms. Men also possessed social status that women did not have, enabling the perpetuation of a patriarchal society.
y applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra ergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra ergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the…
By applying Freudian psychoanalysis and feminist theory, I will analyze the personality of the independent, strong, risk taker, and smart Alexandra Bergson in Willa Cather's O Pioneer! As Smith points out in Freud's Philosophy of the Unconscious, the psychoanalytic model lends insight into the underlying psychic forces promoting personal and collective change. With regards to a singular female like Alexandra Bergson, psychoanalysis takes into account the protagonist's family background, tracing her ego development across the course of her lifetime starting with childhood. The significance of my research is that it studies the possibility of female's success in life under certain circumstances and refutes the outmoded opinion that suggests the leadership is a male-specific quality. Cather creates an overtly political novel with O Pioneer! As her protagonist single-handedly proves that women can be completely self-determined and self-reliant. This would have been a revolutionary view when Cather first published her novel.
The 1913 novel O Pioneer! By Willa Cather, one of the greatest American women writers, is a good illustration for the frontier literature in general, regardless of its political views on gender. However, Cather differentiates herself from her contemporaries and other writers in the Wild West genre, by stressing the other half of the human race: the half that is typically excluded from histories and literature alike. Cather accomplishes what Robinson comments on in "Treason Our Text," a feminist challenge to the accepted and established literary canon. The established canon of literature propagated by mainstream academia is a decidedly and unapologetically patriarchal one; that is, until the second wave of feminism (Robinson). It is therefore important to appreciate Cather's novel within her own historical context, which makes O Pioneer! truly revolutionary. Cather, although certainly not the first or only female American novelist, expands the canon of American literature by addressing the social, political, and economic worldviews from a more global and inclusive perspective, one that takes into account the lives of half of humanity. Patriarchal literature limits itself to constructing women out of stereotypes and projections of feminine ideals and mystiques; Cather simply tells it like it is (Duby, Perrot and Pantel).
The novels heroine embodies all feminine characters who disregard the complex American West during the time the novel was written. The narratives reveals out the difficulties experienced by women
" The subject describes how his mother also adamantly refused to consent to the use of Novocain or any other anesthetic when he visited the dentist (despite his pleas and pleas from the dentist) because of her distrust of "chemicals."
There is likely a direct connection between the subject's development of a highly abrasive and uncontrollable on-air persona and the degree to which the subject's control over basic aspects of his life was denied to him throughout his formative years (Casement, 1998; Mitchell & Black, 1995). More specifically, the subject was denied the right to express himself and he was often forced to abide by very conservative rules of proper conduct both in the home and also outside the home, such as by his mother's repeated warning that he was her "representative" outside the home. The self that developed seems to reflect both the explicit absorption of certain ideas from…
Andrews, J.D.W. "Integrating visions of reality: Interpersonal diagnosis and the existential vision." American Psychologist, Vol. 44; (1989): 803-17.
Bagarozzi, D.A. And Anderson, S.A. (1989). Personal, Marital, and Family Myths:
Theoretical Formulations and Clinical Strategies. New York: Norton.
Casement, a. (1998). Post-Jungians Today. Papers in Contemporary Analytical
We consider deeply how to make amends with the friend we wronged, and we carefully analyze the costs and benefits of moving to a new home. Still, we make these kinds of decisions every day without realizing that we are analyzing them. For instance, we decide to go to work, to buy a sweater or lunch, and to take the expressway instead of the back roads. These decisions are similar to the ones previously mentioned as mulled over in conscious mind, but we do not remember analyzing them. This is because it is done in the unconscious mind. instance, deja vu, coincidences, and understandings that have not been learned can all be considered part of the unconscious mind. These incidents allow us to understand that we are constantly analyzing and processing information, even if we are not aware of it.
She did not have the benefit of a bedroom door for the last two years of high school.
Without the bedroom door, the client changed her clothes in the bathroom and was often unable to sleep at night because of her father's snoring. The first time her mother confronted her for being wide awake (and reading) in her room in the middle of the night, the client admitted that her father's snoring kept her awake. A few minutes later, her father entered her room and whipped her with the belt for "being disrespectful."
After discovering that alcohol allowed her to fall asleep and sleep through the night, she began drinking vodka at bedtime, which she chose because it was odorless and easy to hide in alternative containers in her room and among the cleaning supplies in the bathroom cabinet.
The client has always recalled the details of her childhood physical…
Butler, K. (1997). The Anatomy of Resilience; the Family Therapy Networker, 21(2):22-31
DeJong, P., Miller, S. (1995). How to Interview for Clients Strengths;
Social Work, 40(6).
Goldstein, E. (1995). Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice. (2nd
We must be willing to fail, to falter, to suffer, in order to become greater versions of ourselves. Sometimes, being shown lesser versions of ourselves can be the key to this personal evolution.
And perhaps most importantly, we must recognize that this personal evolution does not occur in a vacuum. To the contrary, we improve ourselves only if we improve the value we represent for the whole of humanity, in whatever modest capacity this may be possible. Here, we are driven by the idea that "a human being is a part of a whole, called by us the 'universe', a part limited in time and space."
This is perhaps the unifying principle in our discussion. The openness which is a recurrent theme here denotes especially the imperative to remain open to one's fellow man. Nothing that we do occurs independently of the needs and wishes of family, friends, communities, societies,…
As Swami Vivekananda once said, "We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think." This notion is one that can be truly applied to my situation and to what Tolle teaches about the pain body -- if we think it, we feel it, and this is true for pain, happiness, contentment, self-confidence etc. For years I dwelled on the stress of bad situations, which affected my life for the worse. Today, I think positively of myself and others, which has brought me noting but contentment in my life and in myself.
As a teenager, a mentor, upon seeing my stress and interactions with bullies told me that the only person capable of dictating my life was I. While I had known this should be the case, I had never truly applied this idea to my own life, choosing instead to let my bullies shape…
..Dad was an impatient man, any display of weakness made him squirm. Mom smiled at his words of criticism but rarely contradicted, not quick or bold enough, to match wits with him" (77).
Another symbolic illustration of suppression within Oates' family in "We were" is the apparent conflict that Bim experiences for his father. He tries to suppress both love and hate for his father, for expressing love would mean "weakness" on Bim's part, not to mention his fear of being rejected when he shows his love for his father. Bim's hate is also suppressed mainly for fear of retribution from his father. It is evident that as a child, Bim is limited to express his feelings -- thus, suppression operates as his way of not acknowledging and hiding the existence of feelings of love and hate, which, at the same time, protects him from feelings of hurt and embarrassment.…
Another reason for the seemingly self-centered behavior is fear of embarrassment: what if I rush to help a person in need but I am promptly made a fool of by the criminal? Furthermore, many people assume that someone else will do something; we basically don't feel responsible in situations like these, just as George, Jerry, Elaine, and Kramer felt not the slightest inkling of social responsibility.
In fact, the entire sitcom is based on the fact that many people feel a complete lack of social responsibility: we are selfish, self-centered individuals. If helping someone isn't in our best interest, or if we won't get anything out of it personally, chances are we will stand back and watch. We are voyeuristic, insular, and eerily similar to George, Jerry, Elaine, and Kramer. The characters' arrest under the "Good Samaritan" law leads to a trail in which their moral characters are scrutinized in…
Stimuli are the bases for cues, but a stimulus is not a cue by itself" (Weiner & Nagel, 1988, p. 239). Just as pilots need simulation devices to provide them with realistic cue which signal that they need to adjust the aircraft, the crew within the cabin of the commercial plane also need cues that they can respond to in training with actions that they are supposed to execute.
Cues need to be part of the crew member training programs. "Crewmember initial training must include instruction on general subjects as well as subjects pertaining to the airplane type to be operated. The subjects for whom crewmembers are to receive instruction must be applicable to their assigned duties. Initial training is based on equipment and crewmembers not qualified in an aircraft group should complete initial training on the aircraft in that group. Crewmember initial training programs should include drills and actual…
Baron, R. (n.d.). The Cockpit, the Cabin, and Social Psychology. Retrieved from gofir.com: http://www.gofir.com/general/crm/index.htm
Burki-Cohen, J., Sparko, a., & Bellman, M. (2011, August). Flight Simulator Motion Literature Pertinent to Airline-Pilot Recurrent Training and Evaluation. Retrieved from Volpe.dot.gov: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/coi/hfrsa/docs/aiaafinal811.pdf
Estegassy, R. (n.d.). Improving Cabin Crew Training for Emergency Evacuations. Retrieved from fire.tc.faa.gov: http://www.fire.tc.faa.gov/1998Conference/presentations/RobertEstegassy.pdf
Liu, a. (2010, October 14). The Role of Cabin Crew in Aircraft Safety Procedures. Retrieved from Aviation Knowledge: http://aviationknowledge.wikidot.com/aviation:the-responsibility-of-cabin-crew-in-aircraft-safety
10-year-old boy, Alec. The child has had pervasive relocations in his life, beginning at age 2 and endured a challenging separation between his parents. Since the separation he first experienced 50% split parenting, living with his mother one week then his father and stepmother the next, until such time as he was school age. He then began to live full time with his mother during the school week and visit his father and stepmother every other weekend, until age 7 when his mother relocated to an area which is a seven hour drive from his father at this point the mother also remarried. From that point to the present he has stayed with his mother and stepfather the majority of the time and traveled to visit his father and stepmother on the Christmas holiday, spring break and through the summer, which usually works out to be about 2 months. Prior…
Gardner, H. (2000) Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York, NY, USA: Basic Books.
Janssen, A., Diekema, E., van Dolder, R., Kollee, L., Oostendorp, R., & Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. (2012). Development of a movement quality measurement tool for children. Physical Therapy, 92(4), 574-594.
Light, P. & Littleton, K. (2000) Social processes in children's learning. Port Chester, NY, USA: Cambridge University.
Meadows, S. (1986) Understanding child development. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge.