Kennedy and Flexible Response 'so Research Paper

Download this Research Paper in word format (.doc)

Note: Sample below may appear distorted but all corresponding word document files contain proper formatting

Excerpt from Research Paper:

The administration of J.F.K. determined that the mission and size of the U.S. advisory project must increase if the U.S.-backed government in Saigon was to survive and win the war. While some of Kennedy's cabinet advisors proposed a negotiated settlement for Vietnam similar to one that recognized Laos as a neutral nation, this was not to be. The administration had just suffered diplomatic setbacks and embarrassments in Berlin and Cuba. So that it did not repeat this, the covert military option was used, but unsuccessfully. The war continued to escalate, requiring more U.S. advisors and military and foreign aid. Unfortunately for the U.S., the covert operations to assist the South against North Vietnam escalated in the harassment and landing of covert forces until the U.S. Navy became embroiled in the Gulf of Tonkin incident that sealed the U.S. path to open military involvement in the conflict (ibid.).

Diplomatic options in Vietnam definitively died as the South Vietnamese government took action against demonstrating Buddhist monks and students in August of 1963. In a fascinating series of memos and audio recordings available to the public online through the auspices of the National Security Archive at George Washington University. At this time, Kennedy had decided upon a coup against Ngo Dinh Diem if he did not remove his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu who the administration was convinced would lose the war due to the oppressive policies. J.F.K. recognized that the Congress might be angry at him for supporting Vietnamese generals in a coup against Diem. However, Kennedy remarked that it will "be madder if Vietnam goes down the drain ("Kennedy considered supporting," 2009)." The administration then considered proposals to evacuate American troops from South Vietnam as explicitly linked to the success of a military coup. The administration tapes reveal that the plans for the American withdrawal were created in fabric of the NSC deliberations about the coup. The coup rumors and threats were waved as a feature of diplomatic maneuvers to induce President Diem to oust his brother Nhu from the government (ibid.). The failure of the administrations policies in the wake of the Diem coup ensured the escalation of the U.S. intervention. As with George W. Bush later, this cavalier attitude toward assassination would raise long lasting constitutional questions that impacted upon civilian rights.

Conclusion

As we have seen, the flexible response doctrine had advantages and disadvantages on the military and diplomatic fronts. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, the U.S. ended overt military efforts against Cuba, but kept up a diplomatic and covert offensive that continues to isolate the island to this day. While the efforts failed to overthrow Castro, they did succeed in maintaining pressure on and containing him for the time.

Unfortunately, this was not to work in Vietnam, where it became overtly involved militarily in the conflict. In the opinion of this author, what we therefore see in Vietnam was the demise of the doctrine of flexible response. In a seemingly inevitable spiral, diplomacy, economic and covert means became a quagmire that demanded full military intervention or withdrawal. Diplomacy, economic pressure, military assistance and covert intervention was not help, even in containing the North Vietnamese forces north of the border. In this, case, the target was not in the American backyard, but half a world away in Southeast Asia. Like in Korea previously, the U.S. became embroiled in an Asian shooting war. Tragically, in the case of Vietnam, it had to overthrow the regime that the U.S. had supported since the Eisenhower administration. The failure of this coup almost certainly sealed the future escalation of the war for the U.S. And cut off diplomatic and other options from the American "tool kit" in the Vietnam situation.

References

Anderson, D.L. (1999). The military and diplomatic course of the vietnam war. Retrieved from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm.

Kennedy considered supporting coup in south vietnam, august 1963. (2009, December 11). Retrieved

from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB302/index.htm.

Lemnitzer, L. (1962). Operation northwoods. Retrieved from www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20010430/doc1.pdf.

Program review by the chief of operations, operation mongoose (lansdale), 18 january 1962. (1962,

January 18). Retrieved from http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/cuba/mongoose.htm.

Roskin, M.G., & Berry, N.O. (2012). Ir: The new world of international relations. (9th ed. ed.). New

York, NY: Pearson.

Wiersma, K., & Larson, B. (1997). Fourteen days in october: the cuban missle crisis. Retrieved from library.thinkquest.org/11046/media/fourteen_days_in_october.pdf.[continue]

Cite This Research Paper:

"Kennedy And Flexible Response 'so" (2012, March 05) Retrieved December 8, 2016, from http://www.paperdue.com/essay/kennedy-and-flexible-response-so-54762

"Kennedy And Flexible Response 'so" 05 March 2012. Web.8 December. 2016. <http://www.paperdue.com/essay/kennedy-and-flexible-response-so-54762>

"Kennedy And Flexible Response 'so", 05 March 2012, Accessed.8 December. 2016, http://www.paperdue.com/essay/kennedy-and-flexible-response-so-54762

Other Documents Pertaining To This Topic

  • Internet in Response to the

    This lead was accomplished through a partnership nearly a half-century old among government, industry and academia. I member of that partnership was the National Science Foundation (NSF). As Strawn noted, early on, scientists and engineers at American universities began to join the young ARPANet, as they worked on basic research funded primarily by the NSF. Acknowledging this, the NSF began supporting national supercomputing centers, in the mid-1980s, as a

  • Washington Rules America s Path to Permanent War

    Washington Rules: America's Path To Permanent War Written by a former Army Colonel, Washington rules: America's path to permanent war (Bacevich, 2010) is a striking analysis of America's pro-military psyche and determination to "to lead, save, liberate, and ultimately transform the world" (Bacevich, 2010, p. 12) through worldwide militarism. Commencing post-World War II, the global military presence that has become a fact of American life has been supported by Democrats and

  • U S Foreign Policy and the

    They however fail to see the strategic linkage in the U.S. foreign policy. Israel is the most trusted ally of United States in the region. It has the same strategic interest as the United States and has a firm foundation of democratic support. The Arab governments on the other hand are unpopular, non-democratic and are in power due to the western interest in maintaining the status quo. Overthrow of the

  • Market Orientation of Medical Diagnostic Units Dissertation

    Market Orientation of Medical Diagnostic Units Dissertation for Master of Health Administration i. Introduction ii. Objectives iii. Description iv Administrative Internship v. Scope and Approach vi. Growth vii. Methodology viii. Hypothesis ix. Survey Questionnaire x. Research Design xi. Observation and Data Presentation xii. Test provided xiii. Analysis of findings Marketability of Patient Satisfaction Importance of Employee Satisfaction xiv. Conclusions and Recommendations xv. Bibliography xvi. Notes xvii. Appendices Market Orientation of Medical Diagnostic Units

  • Cold War Prior to World War II

    Cold War Prior to World War II, American foreign policy had been predicted upon isolationism. Afterward, determined to avoid the mistakes of the pre-war period, American leaders embarked upon an unprecedented era of worldwide commitments. This included entry into a number of alliances with foreign nations, interventions in foreign conflicts (either covertly or overtly) and an unlimited commitment to maintain the nation's military readiness. In doing so, they irrevocably changed this

  • U S Agency International Development Usaid http www usaid gov...

    U.S. Agency International Development (USAID) http://www.usaid.gov / Write response questions . Write response/background report outline point form. Use headings subheadings organize response. Apply APA style guidelines grammar, spelling, punctuation, citing referencing. Nature of the organization's mandate Philosophical perspective, with respect to promoting global health The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the result of the Cold War doctrine related to international assistance. During the Kennedy Administration in the 1960s, the interest

  • Students With Disabilities Who Did

    The shift toward standardized testing has failed to result in a meaningful reduction of high school dropout rates, and students with disabilities continue to be marginalized by the culture of testing in public education (Dynarski et al., 2008). With that said, the needs of students with specific educational challenges are diverse and complex, and the solutions to their needs are not revealed in the results of standardized testing (Crawford &


Read Full Research Paper
Copyright 2016 . All Rights Reserved