Labor and the Growth of Term Paper

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But after a military threat from the side of Northern opponents in Canada (French colonies) English colonists had to revise their attitude towards Indians turning some Indian tribes into allies by presenting them gifts and developing trade relations. Ultimately colonists came to the conclusion that they needed temporary cooperation with Indians in order to strengthen their positions in North America: "many Indians became dependent on the manufactured goods the fur trade brought them, and hunted to meet the demands of European markets rather than the needs of their families." (from Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America, p.15)According to Colin Calloway Indian peoples quickly became involved into the system of colonial trade and ultimately they became an integral part of Atlantic colonial economy which worked only for colonists. European colonists wanted to change Indian culture and system of values which were considered to be an ideological basement for resistance. Europeans started to spread Christian ideology among pagan indigenous tribes: "European missionaries were convinced that there was only one true religion"(from Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America, p.69) and no doubt they did their best to teach "wild" Indians Christian values. The nature of relation of colonists with Native Americans in the 16-18th century had created a long time attitude towards Indians based on discrimination and oppression.

Economical conditions in the north colonies made the biggest contribution to the development of relations between social classes. The lowest class were African slaves who were considered to be only working units and who had no human rights. Slaves were considered to be just a working force and could b easily sold or bought. None of them received wage and nearly all of them were illiterate. Exception was small percentage of home servants. The condition of Indentured servants was a bit fair as they were mostly convicted Englishmen sold to temporary slavery. After slavery term was over most of them stayed in America and contributed to the development of American nation:

After 1718, approximately 60,000 convicts, dubbed "the King's passengers," were sent from England to America. Ninety percent of them stayed in Maryland and Virginia. Although some returned to England once their servitude was over, many remained and began their new lives in the colonies.(from Convict Servants in the American Colonies)

Economical opportunities of American colonies attracted a lot of workers from European countries who dreamed about bearable wages and opportunities to open private businesses. As a result already in the 17th century Northern colonies were populated by a number of working class representatives from different European states: Poland, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands, Italy and Greece: "Virginia came Polish workers for the naval stores industry, French to cultivate vineyards, Italians to set up glassworks, and Dutch to erect sawmills. Irish flax workers developed the linen industry in New England as well as on Maryland's Eastern shore. The Scotch Irish worked the far reaches of Pennsylvania and the Shenandoah Valley." (from Morris, R. The Emergence of American Labor) Richard Morris writes that average wages of workers in American colonies was double of European average wages. Urban elite of North colonies tried to copy English aristocracy in the way of life, education and manners. They loved luxury and at the am time were les skilled in economy than middle class colonists. Most of urban elite representatives participated in political life of colonies as only the minority of middle class colonists had political rights.

Making a conclusion I would like to state that in the beginning of the 18th century there were a lot of premises both political, social and economical for the independence from Great Britain. Existence of social classes and self-governance witnessed for the birth of a new American nation.


Morris, R. The Emergence of American Labor available on web resource:

Convict Servants in the American Colonies, Artilce available on web resource:

Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), 15.

Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press,1998), 69.[continue]

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