living with chronic low back pain." (Snelgrove & Liossin, 2009 P. 735). Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major health problem with enormous economic and social costs. In the United States, between 60% and 80% of the people suffer from back pain in their life of which 30% develop into CLBP. Despite the widespread occurrence of CLBP, the traditional treatments which include back exercises, drug, physical treatment, and education do not always help. (Hadi, Ali, Isa et al. 2009).
Weiss, & Werkmann, (2009) define CLBP as the pain in the lumbosacral region and the sacroiliac joints. Typically, the radicular symptoms and iliolumbar ligaments may also be part of syndrome in the CLBP, and there is prevalent of CLBP in the aged population. CLBP is a type of chronic pain that results to diverse painful and benign condition. Chronic pain may occur despite no evidence of tissue damage in the body. Estimates reveal that CLBP place heavy demand on economic and health service.
Seminowicz, Wideman, Naso. et al. (2011) argue that chronic pain is associated with the impaired cognitive ability. Evaluation of CLBP reveals that CLBP is the most expensive disability among the younger people. In addition, approximately two-third of the adult patients suffers from CLBP. The cause of this pain might be related to para-vertebral, vertebra, muscles, joint, ligaments and spiral nerve root. Typically, chronic LBP might also be associated with the physical, psychological, social and economic difficulties, and treatment of such cases might be challenging. (Hadi, Ali, Isa et al. 2009). The cost of treating the CLBP continues to rise, and the treatment of CLBP continues to become the major public health burden. (Briggs, Jordan, O'Sullivan, et al. (2011).
The paper provides the ethical aspect to provide greater understanding on the extent the study adheres to the ethical considerations.
B. The Ethical Aspects of the Study
Ethical consideration is being implemented in the study, and there is no deception in the study. The ethical approval was obtained from the Local Medical Research Ethics Committee. The major purpose for seeking for ethical approval is to safeguard the participant. The safeguarding steps used for the participants are that the researcher seeks for the consents and the approval of the participants before they are included in the research. In addition, confidentiality and anonymity of the participants are preserved. To preserve the confidentiality of the participants, the use of substituted names is used.
There is approval process from the Local Medical Research Ethics Committee to enhance the ethical consideration of the study. The researcher seeks for the ethical approval from the body before using the patients for research purpose, and informed consents is handled by writing the patients and seek for their consents to be included in the interview process.
There is no undue influence in recruiting the participants because the researcher has already written for the consents of the participants before they are being included in the interview process. The researcher removes the names any participant that does not agree to be included in the interview.
There is a need for debriefing of the participants because the participants need to be aware that they are taking part in the investigation. The researcher should provide the participants the appropriate information to enhance greater understanding of the participants on the nature of the study.
C. Strengths, Limitations, and Suggestions
Snelgrove et al. (2009) uses qualitative technique in their approach. The qualitative technique used is semi-structured interview used for the data collection. There are several strengths that qualitative technique contributes to this study.
First, by using qualitative technique for data collection, the author is able explore deeply into the phenomenon. The use of semi-structured interview allows the author to probe more deeply into the research questions, and this technique allows the researcher to answer the research questions as well as providing findings for the study.
Another strength of the qualitative study is that the author has been able to use analytical process in the data collection and data analysis as well as explaining the social phenomenon.
More strength of the qualitative study is that the researcher is able to collect data from the natural setting. By collecting data from the natural setting, the author has been able to get into the deeper understanding of the research topic. (Pope, Ziebland, & Mays 2000).
Despite the strength of the qualitative study, there are limitations identified in the use of qualitative study.
The first limitation of the qualitative technique in the study is that it is difficulty for research to prevent induced bias. Using qualitative technique for data collection, data analysis, there is no way the researcher could completely eliminate bias in the study.
Moreover, due to the subjectivity in a qualitative research, it may be difficult to establish reliability and validity.
Gathering data through qualitative research is time consuming, and a researcher may incur huge costs in the process of gathering data. The study reveals that the researcher uses approximately 3 years before the researcher could complete the data collection process. This process is time consuming and involves huge costs. (Curry, 2009).
Evaluation of the study shows that the methodological approach for gathering data is relevant to the research topic since the author needs to probe into the phenomenon to generate the research findings. Typically, the quantitative technique will not be appropriate for the study. With the nature of the research topic, the qualitative method is more appropriate. The ethical consideration is also appropriate because of the author seeks for the consent of the interviewees and the appropriate committee before the interview was conducted, and the author took necessary precaution to enhance confidentiality of the interviewees.
Relating the interpretations with the findings, it is revealed that the interpretation is consistence with the results because the study has been able use semi-structured interview to reveal the cause of pain, crucial nature of pain, and the management of pain.
Additionally, there are generalizations that are not warranted on the basis of sample used. For example, the author discusses maintenance of integrity in the research findings which is not warranted.
Relating the research implication, the researcher has offered the implications of the research for practical purpose. The researcher provides the method the psychological therapist could benefit from research findings. From the research findings, the psychological therapist could effective manage the patients pain if the biomedical understanding of the pain is known.
Despite the contribution of the study, there are still limitations identified in the study. First limitation is that the qualitative approach being for the study is not enough; the researcher ought to use the mixed methods for research approach. The advantages of mixed methods will eliminate the shortcoming identified in the qualitative study. The suggestion for the study is that mixed methods should be used for subsequent research because mixed methods places high regard for reality.
D. Quantitative approach
With regard to the study, the quantitative research approach is not the best design. By using quantitative approach, the researcher will not be able to explore the phenomenon of the study in detail, which may not appropriately generate research findings. Typically, the quantitative research design generates the findings in numbers and tables, and the approach may not reflect the true understanding of the participants. In addition, the knowledge produced using quantitative approach may be too abstract for this type of research.
The study is longitudinal because the author conducts observation on the same participants over the 3 years. The researcher does not use control group in the study. With reference to data collection, the number of point is appropriate based on the research questions because the data collected is able to answer the research questions. From the answers provided by the interviewees, the researcher is able to draw a conclusion on the phenomenological analysis with chronic low back pain.
The author designs the study within the same subjects. The participants are ten Caucasians. Aged between 39 and 66, and the study is externally valid because the author is able to reveal the crucial nature of the pain which include physical pain within the body, and threat of pain to patients. The paper also reveals the management of pain which includes medication and physical therapeutic strategy. Despite the revelation of the author that the medication is a part of pain management, there is disenchantment with the use of medication among the health professionals. However, the validity of the study could serve as benefits for the psychological therapists.
Evaluation of research design reveals that qualitative research is good for the study. However, the qualitative design is not the best approach. The research ought to have used the mixed methods as the best approach. The mixed methods address the shortcoming in the qualitative methods. By also using quantitative method to present results, the findings could also being presented with graphs and charts that will provide visual presentation of the research findings.
Based on the number of participants, the number of the participants included in the study is not enough. The…