Management's principal characteristic is the directing and leading towards the achievement of predetermined objectives. An organization runs and works based on defined specific objectives, and the role of management to direct efforts and resources towards the achievement of these objectives. Over the decades, different management approaches and strategies formulation entail in an attempt to find the most suitable approach that can effectively and sustainably direct towards achievement of organizational strategies. This report makes a summary of management philosophies and approaches proposed by different scholars. The work identifies the different opinions on management and the theories proposed on management thought.
Of interest is the article by Kralev (2011) that identifies the importance of the Management by Objectives approach. The scholar proposes this management thought for it defines and uses organizational objectives in directing processes and functions in an organization. Kralev (2011) identifies that in today's business world a manager should lead by emphasizing on organizational objectives, which are directed towards the broad environment, achieving profits, and define paths of operations. Kralev (2011) that the core concept of MBO requires the management processes of planning, organizing, leading, staffing, and controlling, be directed to the achievement of key organizational objectives.
Drucker (1955) derives management by objectives, which is described by Kralev (2011), from MBO theory. Drucker (1955) conceptualized management by objectives as a system of management that is founded on goal congruence for the improvement of performance. The Drucker (1955) believes that the organization is more successful if, "...their efforts ... all pull in the same direction, and their contributions ... fit together to produce a whole, without gaps, without friction, without unnecessary duplication of effort..." (Dinesh & Palmer, 1998). Therefore, Kralev's (2011) management approach derives its basic principle from the management by objective theory as stipulated by Drucker (1955). In this management philosophy, the manager is required to focus on goal alignment as a means to improve organizational performance by providing the goal and path towards increased profitability.
The focus on organizational objectives is a key theme in Yingyan Wang's (2011) article that identifies management philosophy and organizations driven by missions. Wang (2011) proposes that mission driven organizations in Japan are founded on management philosophy. However, his management philosophy is based on the pursuit of a mission, emphasizes on ethics, harmony, trust, honesty, environmental protection and social responsibility. These are all geared towards creating an organizational mission and philosophy that affect management and individual adoption of vision. This is a means to increase job involvement and organizational citizenship behavior. Therefore, the role of management is the creation of an ethical philosophy and a mission-driven culture.
Based on a research analysis, Wang (2011) finds that management that has a well-articulated and enacted philosophy can facilitate transformation of commitment towards productive efforts. This is because this philosophy offers direction to individuals, puts in place constraints on behavior, and emphasizes on individual motivation by creating a clear picture of organizational values, norms, and goals. Wang's (2011) mission-driven management approach borrows heavily from the management by objectives theory. Wang (2011) sought to prove that mission-driven management leads to organizational practice or culture that influences outcomes of individuals towards success.
The third article by He (2011) proposes that traditional strategy plans cannot apply in today's business environment, which requires flexible and rapid responses to changes. He's (2011) article uses information from a case study of NTT DoCoMo and Silicon organizations in China following the Confucian principles. The article proposes a management approach that continually changes and adapts to changing situations. He (2011) approach is based on the Chinese traditional philosophy of constructivism perspective. In this perspective, the management must change strategy to cope with uncertainties and complexities. In addition, the management model proposed by He (2011) follows the philosophy that management must design strategic alignment, where individual behavior and organizational strategy are in alignment.
This Chinese management philosophy entails an alignment that leads to harmony in the organization. This alignment entails a fit between people, people and work, business strategy and environment (He, 2011). This management philosophy leads management to create an environment in the organization where the people's thinking is attuned to achievement of individual and organizational strategies for success. This is because the Confucian philosophy affects the thinking of individuals, as it strives to change behavior. Therefore, following this management philosophy implies that management creates strategies that tune the thinking of employees, with the goal of aligning their behavior to organizational objectives.
The fourth article by Claus Dierksmeier (2011) discusses the relationship between management philosophy and business ethics. The author believes that ethical responsibility among managers must be part of the overall management philosophy in an organization. The manager must have responsible freedom to lead to corporate social responsibility. The author believes management approaches must be based on moral action in economic theories like quantitative reductionism and epistemological materialism. This is to create moral freedom and responsibility among managers and consequently the organization. The article puts an emphasis on managerial direction and responsibility in corporate decision-making. Dierksmeier (2011) management philosophy is based on the philosophies of Adam Smith (1723-1790) on moral philosophy, Theory of Moral Sentiments, and The wealth of Nations. In these theories, a manager's pursuit of gain can lead to social benefits if, legal structures against exploitation and fraudulent are lay down. This is though the existence of political governance, which regulates individual morality, social morals, and customs. In this manner, management must entail intellectual and practical realization of individual and social responsibility in managerial freedom, to achieve corporate social responsibility. This is though the homo economicus and conditio humana models of economics that will lead to the realization that responsible freedom is part of management.
The four articles are similar in that they all discuss management philosophy approaches. The main difference between the four articles is their approach to management philosophy and their method of research to prove their theory. Wang (2011) uses a quantitative survey approach to prove the influence of management philosophy in Japanese companies, while Dierksmeier (2011) opts for the phenomenological research method to investigate management freedom in classical economics. Wang's (2011) approach entails the survey of 1019 Japanese employees to assess their experiences with management. Dierksmeier's (2011) epistemology approach makes an argument against the classical economic philosophy, which severed ethical standards from normative ethical standards. He (2011) uses the case study approach on NTT DoCoMo and Silicon organizations to test his theory, of the success of the Chinese Confucian theory on business. this investigates the degree to which the case studies have successfully integrated Confucian ethics and principles, to show they can be applied to organizations. This is different from the approach used by Kralev (2011), who opts to review literature on management by objectives on tourist-driven organizations.
The management principle promoted by the articles is the management philosophy approach. However, each article has some differential in their approach as compared to others. Wang (2011) focuses on the management philosophies of Japanese companies that emphasize on philosophy, mission statements, and objectives in mission-driven management. The article advocates that mission statements can lead companies to efficiency and productivity. This is almost similar to the management approach promoted by Kralev (2011). Kralev (2011) discusses the interaction between the management by objective approach and matching it to practical demands of business. This analysis finds this management approach similar to the mission-driven approach by Wang (2011). This is because both management approaches advocate for management strategies that focus on planning, organizing, and directing processes, practices, and individuals towards attainment of organizational objectives. At the core of both approaches are goals identified as individual or organizational objectives and mission. Wang (2011) and Kralev (2011) approaches are goal oriented. However, the difference is that Wang's (2011) approach advocates organizational philosophy as a mediating actor between the needs of the enterprise and individuals.…